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(1) Nanobody-antigen conjugates elicit HPV-specific anti-tumor immune responses.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29792298
Publication Date : //
High-risk human papillomavirus-associated cancers express viral oncoproteins (e.g., E6 and E7) that induce and maintain the malignant phenotype. The viral origin of these proteins makes them attractive targets for development of a therapeutic vaccine. Camelid-derived single-domain antibody fragments (nanobodies or VHHs) that recognize cell surface proteins on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) can serve as targeted delivery vehicles for antigens attached to them. Such VHHs were shown to induce CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses against model antigens conjugated to them via sortase, but antitumor responses had not yet been investigated. Here, we tested the ability of an anti-CD11b VHH (VHHCD11b) to target APCs and serve as the basis for a therapeutic vaccine to induce CD8+ T cell responses against HPV+ tumors. Mice immunized with VHHCD11b conjugated to an H-2Db-restricted immunodominant E7 epitope (E749-57) had more E7-specific CD8+ T cells compared to those immunized with E749-57 peptide alone. These CD8+ T cells acted prophylactically and conferred protection against a subsequent challenge with HPV E7-expressing tumor cells. In a therapeutic setting, VHHCD11b-E749-57 vaccination resulted in greater numbers of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes compared to mice receiving E749-57 peptide alone in HPV+ tumor-bearing mice, as measured by in vivo noninvasive VHH-based immune-positron emission tomography (immunoPET), which correlated with tumor regression and survival outcome. Together, these results demonstrate that VHHs can serve as a therapeutic cancer vaccine platform for HPV-induced cancers.

Authors : Woodham Andrew W, Cheloha Ross W, Ling Jingjing, Rashidian Mohammad, Kolifrath Stephen C, Mesyngier Maia, Duarte Joao N, Bader Justin M, Skeate Joseph G, Da Silva Diane M, Kast W Martin, Ploegh Hidde L,

(2) Aire is not essential for regulating neuroinflammatory disease in mice transgenic for human autoimmune-diseases associated MHC class II genes HLA-DR2b and HLA-DR4.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29789121
Publication Date : //
The human autoimmune disease-associated HLA alleles HLA-DR2b (DRB1*1501) and HLA-DR4 (DRB1*0401) are strongly linked to increased susceptibility for multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), respectively. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, but these MHC alleles may shape the repertoire of pathogenic T cells via central tolerance. The transcription factor autoimmune regulator (AIRE) promotes central T cell tolerance via ectopic expression of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs). Aire deficiency in humans causes autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS1), and Aire knockout mice (Aire) develop spontaneous autoimmune pathology characterized by multi-organ lymphocytic infiltrates. Here, we asked whether impaired TSAs gene expression in the absence of Aire promoted spontaneous MS- or RA-like autoimmune pathology in the context of human HLA alleles in HLA-DR2b or HLA-DR4 transgenic (tg) mice. The results show that reduced TSAs gene expression in the thymus of Aire-deficient HLA-DR2b or HLA-DR4 tg mice corresponded to mild spontaneous inflammatory infiltrates in salivary glands, liver, and pancreas. Moreover, Aire-deficiency modestly enhanced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in HLA-DR tg mice, but the animals did not show signs of spontaneous neuroinflammation or arthritis. No significant changes were observed in CD4 T cell numbers, T cell receptor (TCR) distribution, regulatory T cells (Treg), or antigen-induced cytokine production. Abrogating Treg function by treatment with anti-CTLA-4 or anti-CD25 mAb in Aire-deficient HLA-DR tg mice did not trigger EAE or other autoimmune pathology. Our results suggest a redundant role for Aire in maintaining immune tolerance in the context of autoimmune disease-associated human HLA alleles.

Authors : Nalawade Saisha A, Ji Niannian, Raphael Itay, Pratt Andrew, Kraig Ellen, Forsthuber Thomas G,

(3) CD1a-Expressing Monocytes as Mediators of Inflammation in Ulcerative Colitis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29788291
Publication Date : //
CD1a-expressing CD14+ monocytes have been identified as inducers of autoreactive T cells. In this study, the link between inflammatory and metabolic signals and CD1a-expressing monocytes in vitro and in vivo was examined, and CD1a was evaluated as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC).

Authors : Al-Amodi Omar, Jodeleit Henrika, Beigel Florian, Wolf Eckhard, Siebeck Matthias, Gropp Roswitha,

(4) In vitro priming of adoptively transferred T cells with a RORγ agonist confers durable memory and stemness in vivo.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29769201
Publication Date : //
Adoptive T cell transfer therapy is an FDA-approved treatment for leukemia that relies on the ex vivo expansion and re-infusion of a patient's immune cells, which can be engineered with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) for more efficient tumor recognition. Type 17 T cells, controlled transcriptionally by RORγ, have been reported to mediate potent anti-tumor effects superior to those observed with conventionally expanded T cells. Here we demonstrate that addition of a synthetic, small molecule RORγ agonist during ex vivo expansion potentiates the anti-tumor activity of human Th17 and Tc17 cells redirected with a CAR. Likewise, ex vivo use of this agonist bolstered the anti-tumor properties of murine tumor-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Expansion in the presence of the RORγ agonist enhanced IL-17A production without compromising IFN-γ secretion in vitro. In vivo, cytokine neutralization studies revealed that IFN-γ and IL-17A were required to regress murine melanoma tumors. The enhanced anti-tumor effect of RORγ agonist treatment was associated with recovery of more donor T cells in the tumor and spleen; these cells produced elevated levels of cytokines months after infusion and expressed markers of long-lived stem and central memory cells such as Tcf7 and CD62L. Conversely, untreated cells mainly exhibited effector phenotypes in the tumor. Cured mice previously treated with agonist-primed T cells were protected from tumor re-challenge. Collectively, our work reveals that in vitro treatment with a RORγ agonist generates potent anti-tumor Type 17 effector cells that persist as long-lived memory cells in vivo.

Authors : Hu Xiao, Majchrzak Kinga, Liu Xikui, Wyatt Megan M, Spooner Chauncey, Moisan Jacques, Zou Weiping, Carter Laura L, Paulos Chrystal M,

(5) DOX/IL-2/IFN-γ co-loaded thermo-sensitive polypeptide hydrogel for efficient melanoma treatment.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29744449
Publication Date : //
Melanoma has been a serious threat to the human health; however, effective therapeutic methods of this cancer are still limited. Combined local therapy is a crucial approach for achieving a superior anti-tumor efficacy. In this paper, a chemo-immunotherapy system of DOX, IL-2 and IFN-γ based on poly(γ-ethyl-L-glutamate)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(γ-ethyl-L-glutamate) (PELG-PEG-PELG) hydrogel was developed for local treatment of melanoma xenograft. The drug release process of this system exhibited a short term of burst release (the first 3 days), followed by a long-term sustained release (the following 26 days). The hydrogel degraded completely within 3 weeks without obvious inflammatory responses in the subcutaneous layer of rats, showing a good biodegradability and biocompatibility. The DOX/IL-2/IFN-γ co-loaded hydrogel also showed enhanced anti-tumor effect against B16F10 cells , through increasing the ratio of cell apoptosis and G2/S phage cycle arrest. Moreover, the combined strategy presented improved therapy efficacy against B16F10 melanoma xenograft without obvious systemic side effects in a nude mice model, which was likely related to both the enhanced tumor cell apoptosis and the increased proliferation of the CD3/CD4 T-lymphocytes and CD3/CD8 T-lymphocytes. Overall, the strategy of localized co-delivery of DOX/IL-2/IFN-γ using the polypeptide hydrogel provided a promising approach for efficient melanoma therapy.

Authors : Lv Qiang, He Chaoliang, Quan Fenli, Yu Shuangjiang, Chen Xuesi,

(6) MLN3126, an antagonist of the chemokine receptor CCR9, ameliorates inflammation in a T cell mediated mouse colitis model.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29730559
Publication Date : //
C-C chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) is the homing receptor for C-C motif chemokine ligand 25 (CCL25), and contributes to the maintenance of mucosal immunity and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through the recruitment of T cells into the gut mucosa. Recent reports suggest that the interaction of CCR9 and CCL25 in the large intestine correlate with disease severity of colonic IBD. MLN3126 is an orally available small molecular compound with potent and selective CCR9 antagonist activity. MLN3126 inhibited CCL25-induced calcium mobilization in human CCR9 transfected cells and CCL25-induced chemotaxis of mouse primary thymocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The potential effect of MLN3126 in an activated T cell transfer mouse colitis model was compared with that of an anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody. CCL25 protein was detected in the colon of mucosal epithelial cells and CCR9 CD4 T cells were observed in the lamina propria of the colon of mice with colitis. Dietary administration of MLN3126 to the mice maintained sufficient concentration of the compound in the plasma and dose-dependently inhibited progression of colitis compared to the vehicle control group. Anti-TNF-α antibody, a surrogate for a standard of care for IBD treatment, was also efficacious in the colitis model. These results suggest that MLN3126 would be a promising orally available CCR9 antagonist to treat colonic IBD.

Authors : Igaki Keiko, Komoike Yusaku, Nakamura Yoshiki, Watanabe Takeshi, Yamasaki Masashi, Fleming Paul, Yang Lili, Soler Dulce, Fedyk Eric, Tsuchimori Noboru,

(7) A PI3K p110α-selective inhibitor enhances the efficacy of anti-HER2/neu antibody therapy against breast cancer in mice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29721370
Publication Date : //
Combination therapies with phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors and trastuzumab (anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor [HER]2/neu antibody) are effective against HER2+ breast cancer. Isoform-selective PI3K inhibitors elicit anti-tumor immune responses that are distinct from those induced by inhibitors of class I PI3K isoforms (pan-PI3K inhibitors). The present study investigated the therapeutic effect and potential for stimulating anti-tumor immunity of combined therapy with an anti-HER2/neu antibody and pan-PI3K inhibitor (GDC-0941) or a PI3K p110α isoform-selective inhibitor (A66) in mouse models of breast cancer. The anti-neu antibody inhibited tumor growth and enhanced anti-tumor immunity in HER2/neu+ breast cancer TUBO models, whereas GDC-0941 or A66 alone did not. Anti-neu antibody and PI3K inhibitor synergistically promoted anti-tumor immunity by increasing functional T cell production. In the presence of the anti-neu antibody, A66 was more effective than GDC-0941 at increasing the fraction of CD4, CD8, and IFN-γCD8 T cells in the tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte population. Detection of IFN-γ levels by enzyme-linked immunospot assay showed that the numbers of tumor-specific T cells against neu and non-neu tumor antigens were increased by combined PI3K inhibitor plus anti-neu antibody treatment, with A66 exhibiting more potent effects than GDC-0941. In a TUBO (neu+) and TUBO-P2J (neu-) mixed tumor model representing immunohistochemistry 2+ tumors, A66 suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival to a greater extent than GDC-0941 when combined with anti-neu antibody. These results demonstrate that a PI3K p110α-isoform-selective inhibitor is an effective adjunct to trastuzumab in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer.

Authors : Choi Jae-Hyeog, Kim Ki Hyang, Roh Kug-Hwan, Jung Hana, Lee Anbok, Lee Ji-Young, Song Joo Yeon, Park Seung Jae, Kim Ilhwan, Lee Won-Sik, Seo Su-Kil, Choi Il-Whan, Fu Yang-Xin, Yea Sung Su, Park SaeGwang,

(8) Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia-Derived IL-10 Suppresses Antitumor Immunity.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29712773
Publication Date : //
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients progressively develop an immunosuppressive state. CLL patients have more plasma IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, than healthy controls. In vitro human CLL cells produce IL-10 in response to BCR cross-linking. We used the transgenic Eμ-T cell leukemia oncogene-1 () mouse CLL model to study the role of IL-10 in CLL associated immunosuppression. Eμ-TCL mice spontaneously develop CLL because of a B cell-specific expression of the oncogene, Eμ- mouse CLL cells constitutively produce IL-10, which is further enhanced by BCR cross-linking, CLL-derived IL-10 did not directly affect survival of murine or human CLL cells in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that the CLL-derived IL-10 has a critical role in CLL disease in part by suppressing the host immune response to the CLL cells. In IL-10R mice, wherein the host immune cells are unresponsive to IL-10-mediated suppressive effects, there was a significant reduction in CLL cell growth compared with wild type mice. IL-10 reduced the generation of effector CD4 and CD8 T cells. We also found that activation of BCR signaling regulated the production of IL-10 by both murine and human CLL cells. We identified the transcription factor, Sp1, as a novel regulator of IL-10 production by CLL cells and that it is regulated by BCR signaling via the Syk/MAPK pathway. Our results suggest that incorporation of IL-10 blocking agents may enhance current therapeutic regimens for CLL by potentiating host antitumor immune response.

Authors : Alhakeem Sara S, McKenna Mary K, Oben Karine Z, Noothi Sunil K, Rivas Jacqueline R, Hildebrandt Gerhard C, Fleischman Roger A, Rangnekar Vivek M, Muthusamy Natarajan, Bondada Subbarao,

(9) Resolution of bleomycin-induced murine pulmonary fibrosis via a splenic lymphocyte subpopulation.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29690905
Publication Date : //
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with high mortality, and the pathogenesis of the disease is still incompletely understood. Although lymphocytes, especially CD4CD25FoxP3 regulatory T cells (Tregs), have been implicated in the development of IPF, contradictory results have been reported regarding the contribution of Tregs to fibrosis both in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a specific T cell subset has therapeutic potential in inhibiting bleomycin (BLM)-induced murine pulmonary fibrosis.

Authors : Kamio Koichiro, Azuma Arata, Matsuda Kuniko, Usuki Jiro, Inomata Minoru, Morinaga Akemi, Kashiwada Takeru, Nishijima Nobuhiko, Itakura Shioto, Kokuho Nariaki, Atsumi Kenichiro, Hayashi Hiroki, Yamaguchi Tomoyoshi, Fujita Kazue, Saito Yoshinobu, Abe Shinji, Kubota Kaoru, Gemma Akihiko,

(10) Specific blockade CD73 alters the 'exhausted' phenotype of T cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29663369
Publication Date : //
The adenosine-induced immunosuppression hampers the immune response toward tumor cells and facilitates the tumor cells to evade immunosurveillance. CD73, an ecto-5-nucleotidase, is the ectoenzyme dephosphorylating extracellular AMP to adenosine. Here, using immunocompetent transgenic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) mouse model, immune profiling showed high expression of CD73 on CD4 and CD8 T cells was associated with an 'exhausted' phenotype. Further, treatment with anti-CD73 monoclonal antibody (mAb) significantly blunted the tumor growth in the mouse model, and the blockade of CD73 reversed the 'exhausted' phenotype of CD4 and CD8 T cells through downregulation of total expression of PD-1 and CTLA-4 on T cells. Whereas the population of CD4 CD73 /CD8 CD73 T cells expressed higher CTLA-4 and PD-1 as compared to untreated controls. In addition, the human tissue microarrays showed the expression of CD73 is upregulated on tumor infiltrating immune cells in patients with primary HNSCC. Moreover, CD73 expression is an independent prognostic factor for poor outcome in our cohort of HNSCC patients. Altogether, these findings highlight the immunoregulatory role of CD73 in the development of HNSCC and we propose that CD73 may prove to be a promising immunotherapeutic target for the treatment of HNSCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Authors : Deng Wei-Wei, Li Yi-Cun, Ma Si-Rui, Mao Liang, Yu Guang-Tao, Bu Lin-Lin, Kulkarni Ashok B, Zhang Wen-Feng, Sun Zhi-Jun,