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(1) Anti-allergy and anti-tussive activity of Clitoria ternatea L. in experimental animals.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29787795
Publication Date : //
Clitoria ternatea flower is traditionally used in the treatment of respiratory disorders including bronchitis and is one of the ingredients in different Ayurvedic preparations that are used in respiratory disorders. However, till date there is no scientific report on the anti-asthmatic activity of this flower.

Authors : Singh Niraj Kumar, Garabadu Debapriya, Sharma Priyanka, Shrivastava Sushant Kumar, Mishra Pradeep,

(2) Tissue Distribution of Kir7.1 Inwardly Rectifying K Channel Probed in a Knock-in Mouse Expressing a Haemagglutinin-Tagged Protein.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29740340
Publication Date : //
Kir7.1 encoded by the gene in the mouse is an inwardly rectifying K channel present in epithelia where it shares membrane localization with the Na/K-pump. Further investigations of the localisation and function of Kir7.1 would benefit from the availability of a knockout mouse, but perinatal mortality attributed to cleft palate in the neonate has thwarted this research. To facilitate localisation studies we now use CRISPR/Cas9 technology to generate a knock-in mouse, the Kir7.1-HA that expresses the channel tagged with a haemagglutinin (HA) epitope. The availability of antibodies for the HA epitope allows for application of western blot and immunolocalisation methods using widely available anti-HA antibodies with WT tissues providing unambiguous negative control. We demonstrate that Kir7.1-HA cloned from the choroid plexus of the knock-in mouse has the electrophysiological properties of the native channel, including characteristically large Rb currents. These large Kir7.1-mediated currents are accompanied by abundant apical membrane Kir7.1-HA immunoreactivity. WT-controlled western blots demonstrate the presence of Kir7.1-HA in the eye and the choroid plexus, trachea and lung, and intestinal epithelium but exclusively in the ileum. In the kidney, and at variance with previous reports in the rat and guinea-pig, Kir7.1-HA is expressed in the inner medulla but not in the cortex or outer medulla. In isolated tubules immunoreactivity was associated with inner medulla collecting ducts but not thin limbs of the loop of Henle. Kir7.1-HA shows basolateral expression in the respiratory tract epithelium from trachea to bronchioli. The channel also appears basolateral in the epithelium of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx in newborn animals. We show that HA-tagged Kir7.1 channel introduced in the mouse by a knock-in procedure has functional properties similar to the native protein and the animal thus generated has clear advantages in localisation studies. It might therefore become a useful tool to unravel Kir7.1 function in the different organs where it is expressed.

Authors : Cornejo Isabel, Villanueva Sandra, Burgos Johanna, López-Cayuqueo Karen I, Chambrey Régine, Julio-Kalajzić Francisca, Buelvas Neudo, Niemeyer María I, Figueiras-Fierro Dulce, Brown Peter D, Sepúlveda Francisco V, Cid L P,

(3) In Vivo and In Vitro Anti-Bacterial Efficacy of Absorbable Barbed Polydioxanone Monofilament Tissue Control Device with Triclosan.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29624479
Publication Date : //
This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo anti-bacterial efficacy of STRATAFIX™ Symmetric PDS™ Plus Knotless Tissue Control Devices in comparison with standard absorbable polydioxanone devices lacking triclosan, utilizing challenges by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Authors : Bhende Shubhangi, Burkley Daniel, Nawrocki Jesse,

(4) Assembly, Biochemical Characterization, Immunogenicity, Adjuvanticity, and Efficacy of Artificial Invaplex.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29600284
Publication Date : //
The native Invaplex (Invaplex) vaccine and adjuvant is an ion exchange-purified product derived from the water extract of virulent species. The key component of Invaplex is a high-molecular-mass complex (HMMC) consisting of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the invasin proteins IpaB and IpaC. To improve product purity and immunogenicity, artificial Invaplex (Invaplex) was developed using recombinant IpaB and IpaC proteins and purified LPS to assemble an HMMC consisting of all three components. Characterization of Invaplex by various methods demonstrated similar characteristics as the previously reported HMMC in Invaplex. The well-defined Invaplex vaccine consistently contained greater quantities of IpaB, IpaC, and LPS than Invaplex. Invaplex and Invaplex immunogenicities were compared in mouse and guinea pig dose escalation studies. In both models, immunization induced antibody responses specific for Invaplex and LPS while Invaplex induced markedly higher anti-IpaB and -IpaC serum IgG and IgA endpoint titers. In the murine model, homologous protection was achieved with 10-fold less Invaplex than Invaplex and mice receiving Invaplex lost significantly less weight than mice receiving the same amount of Invaplex. Moreover, mice immunized with Invaplex were protected from challenge with both homologous and heterologous serotypes. Guinea pigs receiving approximately 5-fold less Invaplex compared to cohorts immunized with Invaplex were protected from ocular challenge. Furthermore, adjuvanticity previously attributed to Invaplex was retained with Invaplex. The second-generation Invaplex vaccine, Invaplex, offers significant advantages over Invaplex in reproducibility, flexible yet defined composition, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy. species are bacteria that cause severe diarrheal disease worldwide, primarily in young children. Treatment of shigellosis includes oral fluids and antibiotics, but the high burden of disease, increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance, and long-term health consequences clearly warrant the development of an effective vaccine. One vaccine under development is termed the invasin complex or Invaplex and is designed to drive an immune response to specific antigens of the bacteria in an effort to protect an individual from infection. The work presented here describes the production and evaluation of a new generation of Invaplex. The improved vaccine stimulates the production of antibodies in immunized mice and guinea pigs and protects these animals from infection. The next step in the product's development will be to test the safety and immune response induced in humans immunized with Invaplex.

Authors : Turbyfill K Ross, Clarkson Kristen A, Vortherms Anthony R, Oaks Edwin V, Kaminski Robert W,

(5) Corilagin Attenuates Allergy and Anaphylactic Reaction by Inhibiting Degranulation of Mast Cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29434182
Publication Date : //
BACKGROUND This study evaluated the anti-allergic activity of corilagin and also postulates the possible mechanism of its action. MATERIAL AND METHODS Corilagin was given orally at dose of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/day. All the animals (guinea pigs, rats, and mice) were sensitized for allergy such as eosinophilia and leukocytosis induced by milk; degranulation of mast cell by compound 48/80; and passive and active anaphylaxis. Moreover, the antagonistic effect was determined by estimating the effect of corilagin on contraction of guinea pig tracheal chain and ileum induced by Ach and histamine, respectively. RESULTS There was a significant decrease in the leukocyte and eosinophil counts in the corilagin-treated group compared to the negative control group. Treatment with corilagin significantly protects the degranulation of mast cells, and it also has significant anti-muscarinic and antihistaminic activity by reducing the muscle contraction induced by Acetylcholine (Ach) and histamine in guinea pig tracheal chain and ileum. CONCLUSIONS Corilagin possess anti-anaphylactic and anti-allergic activity by inhibiting the release of mediators from mast cells and by decreasing the serum concentration of immunoglobulin E (IgE).

Authors : Zhou Jie, Zhang Ci'an, Sun Yuanyuan, Wang Li, Zhang Jian, Li Fulun, Mao Weian,

(6) Validating a Selective S1P Receptor Modulator Syl930 for Psoriasis Treatment.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29415945
Publication Date : //
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by red, scaly and raised plaques. Thus far, T-cell infiltration is one of the most prominent pathogenic triggers, however, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying psoriasis have not been clearly established. Sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid regulator modulating a variety of immune cell trafficking via interactions with its cognate receptors, S1P. Activation of S1P signaling has recently emerged as a novel therapeutic avenue for psoriasis treatment. Here, we test a newly developed selective S1P modulator, Syl930, in four different psoriasis animal models. Our data reveals that oral administration of Syl930 can induce strong anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. Specifically, Syl930 decreases the pathological thickening of back skin induced by sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), inhibits the proliferation of basal cells in a vaginal epithelium model and increases the granular layer scales in a mouse tail assay. Moreover, Syl930 can ameliorate the parakeratosis and acanthosis as well as improve granular layer composition and decrease the thickening of epidermis in a propranolol-induced guinea pig psoriasis model. Therefore, we demonstrate that Syl930 is a promising candidate for psoriasis therapy in clinical.

Authors : Ji Ming, Xue Nina, Lai Fangfang, Zhang Xiaoying, Zhang Sen, Wang Yuchen, Jin Jing, Chen Xiaoguang,

(7) Expression and function of connexin 43 protein in mouse and human retinal pigment epithelial cells as hemichannels and gap junction proteins.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29366904
Publication Date : //
The changes in the transport function of the outer blood-retinal barrier (BRB), formed by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, under pathological conditions need to be understood to normalize the retinal homeostasis in retinal diseases. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is known to be one of the basic units of gap junctions and hemichannels, which are opened by changes in extracellular conditions. The purpose of this study was to clarify the expression of Cx43 in RPE cells of the retina and Cx43 contribution to compound transport functions in RPE cells. Immunohistochemistry using guinea pig-derived polyclonal anti-Cx43 antibodies indicated that Cx43 is localized at the apical and intercellular membrane of mouse RPE cells. In addition, the immunoprecipitation study using the anti-Cx43 antibodies suggested that Cx43 at the intercellular membrane is associated with gap and adherent junctions in mouse RPE cells. The intercellular transfer after scrape loading of Lucifer Yellow (457 g/mol) among a human RPE cell line, ARPE-19 cells, was greater than that of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (∼3000 g/mol). This Lucifer Yellow transfer was significantly inhibited by carbenoxolone, a connexin inhibitor, suggesting that connexins take part in compound transfer via gap junctions. In addition, Lucifer Yellow uptake by ARPE-19 cells in the absence of extracellular Ca, which is a condition of hemichannel opening, was increased compared with that under normal conditions. This uptake of Lucifer Yellow in the absence of extracellular Ca was significantly reduced in the presence of hemichannel inhibitors and Cx43-gene silencing conditions. This study suggests the involvement of Cx43 in dye transfer via gap junctions among RPE cells and hemichannel-mediated compound transport between the neural retina and RPE cells.

Authors : Akanuma Shin-Ichi, Higashi Hideyuki, Maruyama Souhei, Murakami Koji, Tachikawa Masanori, Kubo Yoshiyuki, Hosoya Ken-Ichi,

(8) Protective Effect of Anti-Phosphatidylserine Antibody in a Guinea Pig Model of Advanced Hemorrhagic Arenavirus Infection.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29290843
Publication Date : //
Host derived markers on virally infected cells or virions may provide targets for the generation of antiviral agents. Recently, we identified phosphatidylserine (PS) as a host marker of virions and virally-infected cells.

Authors : Thomas John M, Thorpe Philip E,

(9) Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells are not labeled in Thy-1YFP-16 transgenic mice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29251688
Publication Date : //
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that express the photopigment melanopsin (mRGCs) are photosensitive and initiate the non-image-forming pathway, where the majority of their axons terminate in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). RGCs only make up approximately half of the cells in the ganglion cell layer of the retina; therefore, it is important to be able to distinguish them from other cell types. The transgenic Thy-1 YFP mouse line 16 (Thy-1 YFP-16) expresses yellow-fluorescent protein (YFP) in projection neurons, including RGCs. Our objective was to determine whether mRGCs are labeled with YFP in Thy-1 YFP-16 transgenic mice. Paraformaldehyde-fixed retinal wholemounts and frozen vertical sections were prepared from Thy-1 YFP-16 mice and fluorescently labeled with rabbit anti-melanopsin and guinea-pig anti-RNA binding protein with multiple splicing to identify mRGCs and total RGCs, respectively. Thy-1 YFP-16 mouse brains were sectioned coronally and imaged to view RGC axonal projections to the SCN. Confocal images of retinal preparations show that the majority (∼89%) of mRGCs are not YFP-positive in Thy-1 YFP-16 mice, where ∼11% expressed a weak fluorescent signal. In addition, there are almost no YFP-positive axons present in the SCN of coronal brain sections. We conclude that the majority of mRGC somas and axons are not labeled with YFP in the transgenic Thy-1 YFP-16 mouse line; therefore, this mouse model may not suitable for research involving mRGC visual pathways.

Authors : Grillo Stephanie L, Stella Salvatore L,

(10) Antiallergic and antihistaminic actions of Ceasalpinia bonducella seeds: Possible role in treatment of asthma.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29247697
Publication Date : //
Seed kernel of the plant Ceasalpinia bonducella Linn (Caesalpiniacaeae) are used for the treatment of asthma in folk medicine and ancient books.

Authors : Vikhe Sunayana, Nirmal Sunil,