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(1) Diphenyleneiodonium enhances oxidative stress and inhibits Japanese encephalitis virus induced autophagy and ER stress pathways.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29792860
Publication Date : //
Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), two widely used anti-oxidants, were employed to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) induced autophagy, stress responses and replication. DPI and NAC exerted opposite effects on ROS levels in JEV infected mouse neuronal cells (Neuro2a), mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and human epithelial cells (HeLa). While NAC effectively quenched ROS, DPI enhanced ROS levels, suggesting that DPI induces oxidative stress in JEV infected cells. DPI treatment of JEV infected Neuro2a cells further blocked autophagy induction and activation of all three arms of the ER stress pathway, and, inhibited virus particle release. Autophagy induction in JEV infection has been previously shown to be linked to the activation of XBP1 and ATF6 ER stress sensors. Our data suggests that DPI mediated block of autophagy is a result of inhibition of ER stress responses and is not associated with an anti-oxidative effect. Since DPI has a wide inhibitory potential for all Flavin dependent enzymes, it is likely that the signalling pathways for ER stress and autophagy during JEV infection are modulated by DPI sensitive enzymes.

Authors : Sharma Manish, Sharma Kiran Bala, Chauhan Shailendra, Bhattacharyya Sankar, Vrati Sudhanshu, Kalia Manjula,

(2) Nanobody-antigen conjugates elicit HPV-specific anti-tumor immune responses.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29792298
Publication Date : //
High-risk human papillomavirus-associated cancers express viral oncoproteins (e.g., E6 and E7) that induce and maintain the malignant phenotype. The viral origin of these proteins makes them attractive targets for development of a therapeutic vaccine. Camelid-derived single-domain antibody fragments (nanobodies or VHHs) that recognize cell surface proteins on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) can serve as targeted delivery vehicles for antigens attached to them. Such VHHs were shown to induce CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses against model antigens conjugated to them via sortase, but antitumor responses had not yet been investigated. Here, we tested the ability of an anti-CD11b VHH (VHHCD11b) to target APCs and serve as the basis for a therapeutic vaccine to induce CD8+ T cell responses against HPV+ tumors. Mice immunized with VHHCD11b conjugated to an H-2Db-restricted immunodominant E7 epitope (E749-57) had more E7-specific CD8+ T cells compared to those immunized with E749-57 peptide alone. These CD8+ T cells acted prophylactically and conferred protection against a subsequent challenge with HPV E7-expressing tumor cells. In a therapeutic setting, VHHCD11b-E749-57 vaccination resulted in greater numbers of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes compared to mice receiving E749-57 peptide alone in HPV+ tumor-bearing mice, as measured by in vivo noninvasive VHH-based immune-positron emission tomography (immunoPET), which correlated with tumor regression and survival outcome. Together, these results demonstrate that VHHs can serve as a therapeutic cancer vaccine platform for HPV-induced cancers.

Authors : Woodham Andrew W, Cheloha Ross W, Ling Jingjing, Rashidian Mohammad, Kolifrath Stephen C, Mesyngier Maia, Duarte Joao N, Bader Justin M, Skeate Joseph G, Da Silva Diane M, Kast W Martin, Ploegh Hidde L,

(3) Anti-neoplastic effects of topoisomerase inhibitors in canine mammary carcinoma, melanoma, and osteosarcoma cell lines.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29791117
Publication Date : //
Numerous topoisomerase inhibitors with proven efficacy have been used extensively to treat various human neoplasms. However, among these, only doxorubicin has been used and studied extensively in veterinary oncology. The current study was performed to evaluate the responsiveness of canine osteosarcoma (cOSA), mammary gland tumour (cMGT), and malignant melanoma (cMM) cell lines to several topoisomerase inhibitors. In addition, the correlation between the sensitivity to treatment and multi-drug resistant (MDR) factors was investigated. cOSA cell lines exhibited higher sensitivity than cMGT and cMM cell lines to all the topoisomerase inhibitors tested in vitro; this was associated with the levels of multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) gene expression in the cOSA cell lines. Treatment of cOSA (HMPOS) and cMGT cell line (CHMp) xenograft mouse models with etoposide markedly delayed tumour progression in HMPOS xenografts, but failed to elicit lasting anti-tumour effects on CHMp xenograft mice. The present findings suggest that MDR1 represents a molecular signature for prediction of treatment efficacy of topoisomerase inhibitors, especially that of etoposide, which may be a clinically useful anti-tumour agent for cOSA; however, further study is necessary to refine the treatment protocol.

Authors : Ong Siew Mei, Yamamoto Hiroki, Saeki Kohei, Tanaka Yuiko, Yoshitake Ryohei, Nishimura Ryohei, Nakagawa Takayuki,

(4) Costaria costata Extract Suppresses Development of Atopic Dermatitis in chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-treated NC/Nga Mice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29791915
Publication Date : //
We investigated the potential effects of Costaria costata (CC) on atopic dermatitis (AD) development in chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-treated NC/Nga mice. CC is a brown alga distributed across the seas of Korea, China, and Japan. A total of 40 mice were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 8 mice per group: untreated Balb/c mice, AD control (0.1% w/v DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice), positive control (i.e., DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice fed a dietary supplement of 66.6 mg/kg of body weight [b.w.] of CJLP133), DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice fed a dietary supplement of 100 mg/kg b.w. of CCE10 (CCE10 100), and DNCB-treated mice fed a dietary supplement of 300 mg/kg b.w. of CCE10 (CCE10 300) groups. The CCE10 100 and CCE10 300 treatment groups suppressed AD development including clinical and histopathological changes and a reduction in skin hydration induced by DNCB. In addition, Th2 cytokine production in primary splenocytes, serum IgE and histamine production, and mast cell infiltration into the skin were suppressed in the CCE10 300 mice compared to the CCE10 100 mice. Our finding demonstrated an inhibitory effect of CCE10 in AD development by means of improving the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance and anti-inflammatory effect in an in vivo model.

Authors : Kim Ok-Kyung, Lee Minhee, Kwon Han Ol, Lee Dasom, Park Jeongjin, Kim Eungpil, You Yanghee, Lim Young Tae, Jun Woojin, Lee Jeongmin,

(5) Immunogenicity and efficacy following sequential parenterally-administered doses of Salmonella Enteritidis COPS:FliC glycoconjugates in infant and adult mice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29791435
Publication Date : //
In sub-Saharan Africa, invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections with serovars S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and I 4,[5],12:i:- are widespread in children < 5 years old. Development of an efficacious vaccine would provide an important public health tool to prevent iNTS disease in this population. Glycoconjugates of S. Enteritidis core and O-polysaccharide (COPS) coupled to the homologous serovar phase 1 flagellin protein (FliC) were previously shown to be immunogenic and protected adult mice against death following challenge with a virulent Malian S. Enteritidis blood isolate. This study extends these observations to immunization of mice in early life and also assesses protection with partial and full regimens. Anti-COPS and anti-FliC serum IgG titers were assessed in infant and adult mice after immunization with 1, 2 or 3 doses of S. Enteritidis COPS:FliC alone or co-formulated with aluminum hydroxide or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvants. S. Enteritidis COPS:FliC was immunogenic in both age groups, although the immune responses were quantitatively lower in infants. Kinetics of antibody production were similar for the native and adjuvanted formulations after three doses; conjugates formulated with MPL elicited significantly increased anti-COPS IgG titers in adult but not infant mice. Nevertheless, robust protection against S. Enteritidis challenge was seen for all three formulations when three doses were given either during infancy or as adults. We further found that significant protection could be achieved with two COPS:FliC doses, despite elicitation of modest serum anti-COPS IgG antibody titers. These findings guide potential immunization strategies that may be translated to develop a human pediatric iNTS vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa.

Authors : Baliban Scott M, Curtis Brittany, Toema Deanna, Tennant Sharon M, Levine Myron M, Pasetti Marcela F, Simon Raphael,

(6) Generation and application of human induced-stem cell memory T (iT ) cells for adoptive immunotherapy.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29790621
Publication Date : //
Adoptive T cell therapy is an effective strategy for cancer immunotherapy. However, infused T cells frequently become functionally exhausted, and consequently offer a poor prognosis after transplantation into patients. Adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific stem cell memory T (T ) cells is expected to overcome this shortcoming since T cells are close to naïve T cells, but are also highly proliferative, long-lived, and produce a large number of effector T cells in response to antigen stimulation. We previously reported that activated effector T cells can be converted into T -like cells (iT ) by co-culturing with OP9 cells expressing Notch ligand, Delta-like 1 (OP9-hDLL1). Here we show the methodological parameters of human CD8 iT cell generation and their application to adoptive cancer immunotherapy. Regardless of the stimulation by anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies or by antigen-presenting cells, human iT cells were more efficiently induced from central memory type T cells than from effector memory T cells. During the induction phase by co-culture with OP9-hDLL1 cells, IL-7 and IL-15 (but not IL-2 or IL-21) could efficiently generate iT cells. Epstein Barr (EB) virus-specific iT cells showed much stronger antitumor potentials than conventionally activated T cells did in humanized EB virus transformed-tumor model mice. Thus, adoptive T cell therapy with iT offers a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer immunotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Authors : Kondo Taisuke, Imura Yuuki, Chikuma Shunsuke, Hibino Sana, Omata-Mise Setsuko, Ando Makoto, Akanuma Takashi, Iizuka Mana, Sakai Ryota, Morita Rimpei, Yoshimura Akihiko,

(7) Simulated microgravity culture enhances the neuroprotective effects of human cranial bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells in traumatic brain injury.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29790427
Publication Date : //
Fundamental cures of central nervous system (CNS) diseases are rarely achieved due to the low regenerative ability of the CNS. Recently, cell-based therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been explored as effective treatments for CNS diseases. Among the various tissue-derived MSCs, we have isolated human cranial bone-derived MSCs (cMSCs) in our laboratory. In addition, we have focused on simulated microgravity (MG) as a valuable culture environment of MSCs. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying functional recovery from the transplantation of MSCs cultured under MG conditions remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic mechanisms of cMSCs transplantation cultured under MG conditions in traumatic brain injury (TBI) model mice. Human cMSCs were cultured under 1G and MG conditions, and cMSCs cultured under MG conditions expressed significantly higher mRNA levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). In TBI model mice, the transplantation of cMSCs cultured under MG conditions (group MG) showed greater motor functional improvement compared to the only phosphate buffered saline administration (group PBS). Moreover, the protein expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were significantly lower at brain injury sites in mice of group MG than those of group PBS. In addition, an in vitro study showed that the conditioned medium of the cMSCs cultured under MG conditions significantly suppressed the cell death of NG108-15 cells exposed to oxidative or inflammatory stress through anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects. These findings demonstrate that culturing cMSCs under simulated microgravity increases the neuroprotective effects, suggesting that simulated microgravity cultures may be a useful method for cell-based therapy strategies for CNS diseases.

Authors : Otsuka Takashi, Imura Takeshi, Nakagawa Kei, Shrestha Looniva, Takahashi Shinya, Kawahara Yumi, Sueda Taijiro, Kurisu Kaoru, Yuge Louis,

(8) BMP-2 restoration aids in recovery from liver fibrosis by attenuating TGF-β1 signaling.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29789683
Publication Date : //
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a central role in hepatic fibrogenesis. This study investigated the function and mechanism of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in regulation of hepatic fibrogenesis. BMP-2 expression in fibrotic liver was measured in human tissue microarray and mouse models of liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation surgery or carbon tetrachloride administration. Adenovirus-mediated BMP-2 gene delivery was used to test the prophylactic effect on liver fibrosis. Primary hepatic stellate cells (HSC), HSC-T6 and clone-9 cell lines were used to study the interplay between BMP-2 and TGF-β1. Hepatic BMP-2 was localized in parenchymal hepatocytes and activated HSCs and significantly decreased in human and mouse fibrotic livers, showing an opposite pattern of hepatic TGF-β1 contents. BMP-2 gene delivery alleviated the elevations of serum hepatic enzymes, cholangiocyte marker CK19, HSC activation markers, and liver fibrosis in both models. Mechanistically, exogenous TGF-β1 dose dependently reduced BMP-2 expression, whereas BMP-2 significantly suppressed expression of TGF-β and its cognate type I and II receptor peptides, as well as the induced Smad3 phosphorylation levels in primary mouse HSCs. Aside from its suppressive effects on cell proliferation and migration, BMP-2 treatment prominently attenuated the TGF-β1-stimulated α-SMA and fibronectin expression, and reversed the TGF-β1-modulated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition marker expression in mouse HSCs. The mutual regulation between BMP-2 and TGF-β1 signaling axes may constitute the anti-fibrogenic mechanism of BMP-2 in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. BMP-2 may potentially serve as a novel therapeutic target for treatment of liver fibrosis.

Authors : Chung Yueh-Hua, Huang Ying-Hsien, Chu Tien-Huei, Chen Chun-Lin, Lin Pey-Ru, Huang Shih-Chung, Wu Deng-Chyang, Huang Chao-Cheng, Hu Tsung-Hui, Kao Ying-Hsien, Tai Ming-Hong,

(9) Human carbonic anhydrase-8 AAV8 gene therapy inhibits nerve growth factor signaling producing prolonged analgesia and anti-hyperalgesia in mice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29789638
Publication Date : //
Carbonic anhydrase-8 (Car8; murine gene symbol) is an allosteric inhibitor of inositol trisphosphate receptor-1 (ITPR1), which regulates neuronal intracellular calcium release. We previously reported that wild-type Car8 overexpression corrects the baseline allodynia and hyperalgesia associated with calcium dysregulation in the waddle (wdl) mouse due to a 19 bp deletion in exon 8 of the Car8 gene. In this report, we provide preliminary evidence that overexpression of the human wild-type ortholog of Car8 (CA8 ), but not the reported CA8 S100P loss-of-function mutation (CA8 ), inhibits nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced phosphorylation of ITPR1, TrkA (NGF high-affinity receptor), and ITPR1-mediated cytoplasmic free calcium release in vitro. In addition, we show that gene transfer using AAV8-V5-CA8 viral particles via sciatic nerve injection demonstrates retrograde transport to dorsal root ganglia (DRG) producing prolonged V5-CA8 expression, pITPR1 and pTrkA inhibition, and profound analgesia and anti-hyperalgesia in male C57BL/6J mice. AAV8-V5-CA8-mediated overexpression prevented and treated allodynia and hyperalgesia associated with chronic neuropathic pain produced by the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model. These AAV8-V5-CA8 data provide a proof-of-concept for precision medicine through targeted gene therapy of NGF-responsive somatosensory neurons as a long-acting local analgesic able to prevent and treat chronic neuropathic pain through regulating TrkA signaling, ITPR1 activation, and intracellular free calcium release by ITPR1.

Authors : Zhuang Gerald Z, Upadhyay Udita, Tong Xiaoying, Kang Yuan, Erasso Diana M, Fu Eugene S, Sarantopoulos Konstantinos D, Martin Eden R, Wiltshire Tim, Diatchenko Luda, Smith Shad B, Maixner William, Levitt Roy C,

(10) Long non-coding RNA Gm2199 rescues liver injury and promotes hepatocyte proliferation through the upregulation of ERK1/2.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29789577
Publication Date : //
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new class of regulators of various human diseases. This study was designed to explore the potential role of lncRNAs in experimental hepatic damage. In vivo hepatic damage in mice and in vitro hepatocyte damage in AML12 and NCTC1469 cells were induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl) treatments. Expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs were analyzed by microarray. Bioinformatics analyses were conducted to predict the potential functions of differentially expressed lncRNAs with respect to hepatic damage. Overexpression of lncRNA Gm2199 was achieved by transfection of the pEGFP-N1-Gm2199 plasmid in vitro and adeno-associated virus-Gm2199 in vivo. Cell proliferation and viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine assay. Protein and mRNA expressions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) were detected by western blot and quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Microarray analysis identified 190 and 148 significantly differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs, respectively. The analyses of lncRNA-mRNA co-expression and lncRNA-biological process networks unraveled potential roles of the differentially expressed lncRNAs including Gm2199 in the pathophysiological processes leading to hepatic damage. Gm2199 was downregulated in both damaged livers and hepatocyte lines. Overexpression of Gm2199 restored the reduced proliferation of damaged hepatocyte lines and increased the expression of ERK1/2. Overexpression of Gm2199 also promoted the proliferation and viability of normal hepatocyte lines and increased the level of p-ERK1/2. Overexpression of Gm2199 in vivo also protected mouse liver injury induced by CCl, evidenced by more proliferating hepatocytes, less serum alanine aminotransferase, less serum aspartate aminotransferase, and decreased hepatic hydroxyproline. The ability of Gm2199 to maintain hepatic proliferation capacity indicates it as a novel anti-liver damage lncRNA.

Authors : Gao Qiang, Gu Yunyan, Jiang Yanan, Fan Li, Wei Zixiang, Jin Haobin, Yang Xirui, Wang Lijuan, Li Xuguang, Tai Sheng, Yang Baofeng, Liu Yan,