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(1) Isthmin 1 is a secreted protein expressed in skin, mucosal tissues, and NK, NKT, and th17 cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :24956034
Publication Date : //
Using a comprehensive microarray database of human gene expression, we identified that in mammals, a secreted protein known as isthmin 1 (ISM1) is expressed in skin, mucosal tissues, and selected lymphocyte populations. ISM1 was originally identified in Xenopus brain during development, and it encodes a predicted ∼50-kDa protein containing a signal peptide, a thrombospondin domain, and an adhesion-associated domain. We confirmed the pattern of expression of ISM1 in both human and mouse tissues. ISM1 is expressed by DX5(+) lung lymphocytes that include NK and NKT-like cells, and is also expressed by some CD4(+) T cells upon activation but its expression increases significantly when CD4(+) T cells were polarized to the Th17 lineage in vitro. The presence of IFN-γ during CD4(+) T cell polarization inhibits ISM1 expression. Given that ISM1 has been reported to have anti-angiogenic properties, these observations suggest that ISM1 is a mediator of lymphocyte effector functions and may participate in both innate and acquired immune responses.

Authors : Valle-Rios Ricardo, Maravillas-Montero José L, Burkhardt Amanda M, Martinez Cynthia, Buhren Bettina Alexandra, Homey Bernhard, Gerber Peter Arne, Robinson Octavio, Hevezi Peter, Zlotnik Albert,

(2) Xenopus NK cells identified by novel monoclonal antibodies.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :10671217
Publication Date : //
Early-thymectomized (Tx) Xenopus frogs, which are permanently deficient in T cells, are used as a model sytem for the characterization of novel monoclonal antibodies (mAb) which identify candidate NK cells at the amphibian level of evolution. Hybridomas, generated from mice immunized with splenocytes from Tx Xenopus following B cell and thrombocyte depletion, were screened by flow cytometry. Three mAb (1F8, 4D4 and 1G5) were identified that stained increased proportions of splenocytes from Tx compared with control frogs. These mAb identified lymphoid populations from Xenopus spleen, liver and gut which, after 48 h culture in growth factor-rich medium, exhibited spontanous killing of MHC-deficient allotumor targets. mAb-defined splenocytes also rapidly induced apoptosis of such tumor targets. Dual color analysis confirmed that NK cells are neither T nor B cells. Cytospins of splenocytes isolated with anti-NK mAb revealed large lymphoid cells with distinct pseudopodia. Immunohistology indicated each anti-NK mAb routinely labeled cells within the gut epithelium but NK cells were difficult to visualize in spleen sections. Western blotting of spleen, liver and intestinal lysates subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that 1G5 reacted strongly with protein bands of approximately 70 - 85 kDa, whereas mAb 1F8 and 4D4 stained less intensely, but identified similar protein bands.

Authors : Horton T L, Minter R, Stewart R, Ritchie P, Watson M D, Horton J D,