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(1) Animals as amplification hosts in the spread of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30500443
Publication Date : //
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne infectious disease caused by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). The seroprevalence of anti-SFTSV antibodies specific to SFTSV (IgG or IgM) has been investigated in different animal hosts in many epidemiological studies, but no systematic estimation of seroprevalence has yet been performed. Hence, this meta-analysis was conducted in order to obtain a more comprehensive result to clarify the prevalence of SFTSV in animals.

Authors : Chen Can, Li Peng, Li Ke-Feng, Wang Hong-Ling, Dai Ya-Xin, Cheng Xi, Yan Jian-Bo,

(2) Exploring early and late Toxoplasma gondii strain RH infection by two-dimensional immunoblots of chicken immunoglobulin G and M profiles.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :25803039
Publication Date : //
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular apicomplexan parasite infecting warm-blooded vertebrate hosts, with only early infection stage being contained with drugs. But diagnosis differencing early and late infection was not available. In the present investigation, 2-dimensional immunobloting was used to explore early and late infections in chickens. The protein expression of T. gondii was determined by image analysis of the tachyzoites proteome separated by standard-one and conventional two-dimentional gel polyacrylamide electrophoresis (2D- PAGE). Pooled gels were prepared from tachyzoites of T. gondii. A representative gel spanning a pH range of 3-10 of the tachyzoite proteome consisted of 1306 distinct polypeptide spots. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with 2-DE immunoblotting was used to resolve and compare immunoglobulins (Igs) M & G patterns against Toxoplasma gondii strain RH (mouse virulent strain). Total tachyzoite proteins of T. gondii were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by Western blotting for their reactivity with the 7 and 56 days post-infection (dpi) SPF chicken antisera. Different antigenic determinant patterns were detected during analysis with M and G immunoglobulins. Of the total number of polypeptide spots analyzed (1306 differentially expressed protein spots), 6.97% were identified as having shared antigenic polypeptide spots on immunoblot profiles with IgG and IgM antibodies regardless the time after infection. Furthermore, some of the immunoreactive polypeptide spots seemed to be related to the stage of infection. Interestingly, we found natural antibodies to toxoplasmic antigens, in addition to the highly conserved antigenic determinants that reacted with non-specific secondary antibody; goat anti-chicken IgG antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. In conclusion, unique reactive polypeptide spots are promising candidates for designation of molecular markers to discriminate early and late chicken infection.

Authors : El-Ashram Saeed, Sun Ximeng, Yin Qing, Liu Xianyong, Suo Xun,

(3) Hepatitis E virus infection among domestic animals in eastern China.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :18638181
Publication Date : //
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen of which several species of animal were reported as reservoirs. Antibodies to HEV and HEV RNA have been detected in some Chinese population and swine groups but few other domestic animals. In this study, to investigate the HEV prevalence, we tested sera from 788 pigs, 100 cows, 50 goats, 49 horses, 101 pet dogs, 105 chickens, 47 duck and 45 pigeons in eastern China for anti-HEV immunoglobulin G (IgG). We also tested 50% of the swine sera, all of sera from the other domestic animals and 13 Shanghai human sera which were positive for anti-HEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) for HEV RNA using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicated that 82.5% (222/269) of the sows, 53.9% (104/193) of the 4- to 6-month-old swine, 63.4% (168/265) of the 1- to 3-month-old swine, 55.7% (34/61) of the slaughterhouse swine, 24% (12/50) of the goats, 16.3% (8/49) of the horses, 17.8% (21/101) of the pet dogs, 6% (6/100) of the cows, 12.8% (6/47) of the ducks, 4.4% (2/45) of the pigeons and 1.9% (2/105) of the chickens exhibited positive for anti-HEV IgG. Inhibition assay confirmed the infection with HEV or HEV-like viruses in these domestic animals except pigeons and chickens. From the sera, we isolated 18 swine HEV strains, one horse HEV strain and two human HEV strains. Sequence analysis showed that the horse HEV isolate and one swine isolate belonged to genotype 3. The other isolates belonged to genotype 4. The two human isolates were phylogenetically closely related to eight of the swine isolates. In short, the presence of anti-HEV antibody had been confirmed in several species of domestic animals in eastern China and HEV RNA has been identified in swine, human and horse. This suggested that the authorities should pay more attention to the prevalence of HEV in eastern China.

Authors : Zhang W, Shen Q, Mou J, Gong G, Yang Z, Cui L, Zhu J, Ju G, Hua X,

(4) Production of chick germline chimeras from fluorescence-activated cell-sorted gonocytes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :17012166
Publication Date : //
Modification of the chicken germline has been difficult, because it has been challenging to fractionate sufficient numbers of primordial germ cells for manipulation and implantation into developing embryos. A technique to enrich cell suspensions for primordial germ cells, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), has recently been developed. The objective of the current study was to demonstrate that the FACS-enriched early embryonic gonocytes could fully participate in development of the germline. Therefore, cells were disassociated from stage 27 gonads, incubated with mouse anti-stage-specific embryonic antigen-1, which was detected with goat-antimouse IgM-fluorescein isothiocyanate, and the fluorescently labeled cells were sorted from the unlabeled cells using FACS. The isolated gonocyte population was injected into the blastoderm of unincubated stage X embryos, the germinal crescent of 3-d embryos, and into the circulation of stage 17 embryos that were pretreated with busulfan. Barred Plymouth Rock gonocytes were implanted exclusively into recipient White Leghorn embryos, and White Leghorn gonocytes were implanted exclusively into Barred Plymouth Rock recipient embryos. Embryos were cultured until hatch, and male putative chimeras were reared to sexual maturity. Germline chimerism was evaluated by observing feather color of the progeny. All injection methods resulted in germline chimeras demonstrating that FACS-sorted gonocytes can fully participate in development. Moreover, it was demonstrated that gonocytes isolated from stage 27 embryonic gonads can be introduced into embryos at an earlier stage of development, and the introduced gonocytes can fully participate in germline development.

Authors : Mozdziak P E, Wysocki R, Angerman-Stewart J, Pardue S L, Petitte J N,

(5) Salmonella challenge affects the antibody isotype profile of bile in hens differing in metabolic efficiency.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :16673763
Publication Date : //
Gel precipitation reactions determined antibody isotypes in bile from hens differing in dietary efficiency. Ouchterlony double diffusion employing alpha-chain specific goat-anti-chicken IgA, rabbit anti-chicken IgG, goat anti-chicken IgM, black turtle bean (BTB), and Jacalin lectins as precipitating reagents detected bile IgA, IgG, and IgM from Salmonella exposed and nonexposed hens. The IgA was present in 1 of 3 forms designated by reagent and frequency: IgAB (precipitated by BTB lectin) 100%; IgAA (precipitated by anti-alpha chain antibody) 98%, and IgAJ (precipitated by Jacalin) 97%. That both BTB and Jacalin precipitates contain IgA was confirmed by immuno-dot blots using affinity purified alpha-chain specific antibody, establishing each as IgA glycoforms. Three measurements of Ouchterlony precipitates were made; d1 and d2 indicate diffusion from sample or reagent wells, lambda indicates arc length. Mean values for lambda, estimating quantity, were IgAA (11.3 mm) and IgAB (11.6 mm) and IgAJ (8.3 mm). The crescent shape IgAJ arc and its slower diffusion (d1) suggested its molecular weight is greater than either IgAA or IgAB. Arc lengths of individual samples were not significantly correlated suggesting that these are independent components of bile. Oral Salmonella enteritidis challenge resulted in a highly significant difference in bile IgA profiles. The IgAJ arc lengths (lambda) in R- hens increased by 20% over those in nonchallenged R- hens. Conversely S. enteritidis challenge was associated with a decrease of 10% in IgAJ arc lengths in nonefficient (R+) hens. Salmonella enteritidis challenge was not associated with arc length differences in either IgAA or IgAB. The IgG was present in all specimens, and in 9 of 59 (15%) 2 forms were detected. The IgG quantity was unaffected by either efficiency type or S. enteritidis challenge. The IgM was detected in only 2 of 59 (3.4%) specimens. Our observations suggest IgA of bile is composed of multiple forms influenced both by diet efficiency status and S. enteritidis exposure. It appears that the latter resulted in an increased quantity of IgAJ in R- hens, and suggests the existence of functional differences among the various IgA types.

Authors : Cotter P F, Van Eerden E,

(6) Isolation of chicken primordial germ cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :15844816
Publication Date : //
Presently, it is difficult to undertake germ line modification of the chicken with primordial germ cells (PGC) because it has been difficult to efficiently fractionate the PGC from the total somatic cell population. The objective of this study was to develop a method that allows isolation of an enriched population of viable PGC from embryonic blood and embryonic gonadal tissue. Blood was harvested from early chick embryos (stages 13 to 15), and cells were liberated from the gonads of stage 27 chick embryos. Subsequently, viable PGC were labeled with anti-stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1), which was detected with goat-anti-mouse IgM-fluorescein isothiocyanate. Fluorescently labeled cells were sorted from the unlabeled cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and the identities of the PGC were confirmed using periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining or anti-embryonic mouse antigen-1 (EMA-1) staining followed by microscopic evaluation. Finally, PGC were sorted from somatic cells of sex-identified embryos. Less than 0.1% of the blood cell population was collected as SSEA-1-positive cells. Similarly, approximately 2% of the gonadal cell population were collected as SSEA-1-positive cells. Therefore, fewer (-1,000 to 9,000) PGC were recovered from each isolate. Placing the sorted SSEA-1-positive cells on a glass slide from a microcentrifuge tube resulted in a recovery rate of 53 to 73% relative to the number detected by FACS. Furthermore, the proportions of sorted cells that stained with PAS or anti-EMA-1 following sorting were 92+/-4% PAS positive and 94+/-1% anti-EMA-1 positive. Finally, the sorted SSEA-1-positive cells were maintained in vitro to demonstrate their viability after sorting. It was demonstrated that it is possible to label blood and gonadal chicken PGC with SSEA-1 and subsequently to sort viable SSEA-1-positive PGC from somatic cells.

Authors : Mozdziak P E, Angerman-Stewart J, Rushton B, Pardue S L, Petitte J N,

(7) Human natural immunoglobulin M antibodies induce apoptosis of human neuroblastoma cells by binding to a Mr 260,000 antigen.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :10446994
Publication Date : //
Sera of healthy humans contain natural cytotoxic IgM antibodies that specifically recognize a Mr 260,000 antigen (NB-p260) on the surface of human neuroblastoma (NB) cells. Here we demonstrate that anti-NB IgM antibodies prepared from different healthy individuals induce, in all human NB cell lines analyzed thus far, typical morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis including nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation. Both the binding of human anti-NB IgM to NB cells and the induction of apoptosis could be inhibited by preincubation of NB cells with murine IgG raised against purified NB-p260. Furthermore, preincubation of human anti-NB IgM with purified NB-p260 immobilized onto a solid support abolished its ability to induce apoptosis in NB cells. Natural human anti-NB IgM failed to bind to and induce apoptosis in control tumor cell lines that lack expression of NB-p260. The anti-NB IgM-induced apoptotic response was also observed in vivo in xenografted human NB tumors. After a single i.v. injection of anti-NB IgM into nude rats bearing solid NB xenografts, many areas of pyknotic cells with fragmented nuclei were observed that stained positive using the terminal dUTP nick end labeling method. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that natural anti-NB IgM antibodies in the sera of healthy individuals are potent mediators of apoptotic cell death of NB cells both in vitro and in vivo. The NB-p260 antigen was identified as the apoptosis-inducing receptor for anti-NB IgM. Whereas natural anti-NB IgM and NB-p260 may be useful tools for immunotherapy of NB, their biological significance remains to be determined.

Authors : David K, Ollert M W, Vollmert C, Heiligtag S, Eickhoff B, Erttmann R, Bredehorst R, Vogel C W,

(8) Identification of N-acetylglucosamine-binding immunoglobulins in chicken egg yolk and serum distinct from the major mannose-binding immunoglobulins.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :1822232
Publication Date : //
An N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc)-binding protein of 170 kDa has been isolated from hen serum and egg yolk. Another GlcNAc-binding protein of higher molecular mass was present only in the serum. The 170 kDa protein co-electrophoresed and co-chromatographed in gel filtration with a chicken IgG, and behaved identical to chicken IgG in double immunodiffusion with goat anti-chicken gamma chain antiserum. The sugar-binding hierarchy for the serum and yolk binding proteins, determined with bovine serum albumin neoglycoproteins, was GlcNAc greater than N-acetyl-D-galactosamine greater than glucose = galactose = L-fucose greater than mannose. This hierarchy was unlike any previously reported GlcNAc-binding proteins. The larger serum binding protein component was shown to be an IgM by double immunodiffusion with goat anti-chicken mu chain antiserum. The serum and yolk GlcNAc-binding proteins comprise a unique set of sugar-binding immunoglobulins distinct from the previously reported hen serum and yolk mannose-binding proteins (Wang et al., 1986).

Authors : Hoppe C A, Suzuki H, Shih J, Lee Y C,

(9) Specificity of rheumatoid factors in relation to the disease state in rheumatoid arthritis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :2241264
Publication Date : //
Rheumatoid factors found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis react with human IgG and with IgG from some other species. The levels of rheumatoid factor give some indication of prognosis, albeit a rather poor one in this highly variable disease. The high degree of variability may, in part, be due to differences in the fine specificity of the rheumatoid factor in each individual patient, leading to differences in the types of immune complex formed. To study this hypothesis the fine specificity of rheumatoid factors of the IgM, IgA, and IgG classes for IgG from human, baboon, orangutan, macaque, owl monkey, gorilla, marmoset, cow, pig, sheep, goat, horse, mouse, and chicken was examined. Differential reactivity for these species was found and associations between the presence of rheumatoid factor and the development of moderate or severe erosions.

Authors : Jones M G, Shipley M E, Hearn J P, Hay F C,

(10) Monoclonal antibodies to chick renal calcium regulating hemeproteins. Biochemical and immunohistochemical interactions with mitochondrial 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 hydroxylases.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :1726440
Publication Date : //
The kidney mitochondrial monooxygenases known as 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha- and 24R-hydroxylases are two analogous enzymes which utilize the vitamin as a common substrate for the catalytic production of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. These two enzymes are complexes of NADPH-ferredoxin reductase, and an (Fe-S)-cluster containing ferredoxin with a redox potential that allows the ultimate transfer of reducing equivalents to the terminal oxidases distinctly known as cytochromes P-450(1) alpha and P-450(24). We have used in vitro immunizations of splenocytes obtained from mice sensitized with the purified cytochrome P-450(1) alpha to generate three hybridoma clones from fusion with p3 x 63.Ag8.653 myeloma ATCC cells which selectively secrete monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of the IgM class. The MAbs have been partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by size separation chromatography on Sephacryl S-200-HR. We have compared the structural similarities and differences between the two kidney enzymes in Western Blot analyses using horseradish peroxidase conjugated goat anti-mouse Igs specific for the heavy and light chains of mouse IgA, IgG and IgM. The MAbs from all three clones recognized and interacted with apparent common epitopes of the two hydroxylases but selectively discriminated against liver microsomal P-450LM2 type and adrenal mitochondrial P-450SCC cytochromes. The cytochromes P-450(1) alpha and P-450(24) were detected as two separate bands with approximate molecular weights of 57 and 55 KDa, respectively. In reconstitution of hydroxylase activities in vitro, the MAbs were equally effective in inhibiting the 1 alpha-hydroxylation and 24R-hydroxylation reactions. The ratio of micrograms of Igs to pmol cytochrome P-450 for a 50% inhibition of either activity was approximately 25. These results, collectively, seem to suggest the existence of a precursor-product relationship between the kidney mitochondrial 1 alpha- and the 24R-hydroxylases, or perhaps, a common ancestral origin. Immunochemical peroxidase anti-peroxidase staining of kidney tissue first exposed to the MAbs revealed that only the proximal tubular segment of the nephron was specifically enriched with the cytochromes.

Authors : Mandel M L, Moorthy B, Swartz S J, Garancis J C, Ghazarian J G,