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(1) Efficient expression of enterovirus 71 based on virus-like particles vaccine.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30845175
Publication Date : //
Enterovirus (EV) 71 is the main pathogen associated with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and can lead to the disease with severe mortality in children. Since 2009, in the Republic of Korea, an outbreak of EV71 C4a infection with neurologic involvement emerged, where in HFMD involvement was identified and central nervous system complications were reported. In this study, EV71 C4a virus-like particles (VLPs) produced by recombinant technology were generated in a baculovirus expression system. To improve the production yield, EV71 VLP was constructed using the dual promoter system baculovirus P1 and 3CD (baculo-P1-3CD), which harbored both the structural protein-encoding P1 region under the control of the polyhedron promoter and the 3CD protease gene under the regulation of the CMV-IE, lef3, gp41, or chitinase promoters to augment the level of gene transcription. Efficient VLP expression was demonstrated through optimization of incubation time and insect cell type. In addition, to evaluate the potential of VLP as a vaccine candidate, we tested the neutralizing antibodies and total anti-EV71 IgG from the purified EV71 C4a VLP serum. The recombinant EV71 VLP exhibited the morphology of self-assembled VLP, as determined by electron microscopy. Use of baculo-P1-3CD-gp41 led to a high yield (11.3mg/L < 40kDa) of VLPs in High-FiveTM cells at 3 days post-infection. Furthermore, the potential of VLP as a vaccine was evaluated through the neutralizing ability elicited by the purified EV71 VLP after immunization of BALB/c mice, which was shown to induce potent and long-lasting humoral immune responses as evidenced by the cross-neutralization titer. Our results could be used to expedite the developmental process for vaccines under clinical trials and to ensure manufacturing consistency for licensing requirements.

Authors : Kim Hye-Jin, Son Ho Sun, Lee Sang Won, Yoon Youngsil, Hyeon Ji-Yeon, Chung Gyung Tae, Lee June-Woo, Yoo Jung Sik,

(2) Recombinant virus-like particle presenting a newly identified coxsackievirus A10 neutralization epitope induces protective immunity in mice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30817941
Publication Date : //
Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) has emerged as one of the major pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease in recent years. However, there are no approved vaccines or effective drugs against CVA10. Several experimental CVA10 vaccines have been shown to elicit neutralizing antibodies that could confer protection against viral infection. However, neutralizing antigenic sites on CVA10 capsid have not been well characterized. Here, we report the characterization of linear neutralization epitopes of CVA10 and the development of a CVA10 vaccine based on the identified epitopes. We showed that peptide VP2-P28, corresponding to residues 136 to 150 of VP2, were recognized by anti-inactivated CVA10 sera and effectively inhibited anti-CVA10 sera-mediated neutralization, suggesting that this peptide contains neutralizing epitopes. Insertion of VP2-P28 into hepatitis B core antigen (HBc) resulted in a chimeric virus-like particle (VLP; designated HBc-P28) with the CVA10 epitope exposed on the particle surface. HBc-P28 VLP elicited strong antibody responses against VP2-P28 in mice. Anti-HBc-P28 sera could neutralize both CVA10 clinical isolates and prototype strain, consistent with the fact that the VP2-P28 sequence is highly conserved among CVA10 strains. In addition, anti-HBc-P28 sera failed to cross-neutralize other HFMD-causing enteroviruses, indicating that neutralizing antibodies elicited by HBc-P28 VLP were CVA10-specific. Importantly, anti-HBc-P28 sera were able to provide efficient protection against lethal CVA10 infection in recipient mice. Collectively, these data show that peptide VP2-P28 represents a CVA10-specific linear neutralizing antigenic site and chimeric VLP displaying this peptide is a promising epitope-based CVA10 vaccine candidate.

Authors : Dai Wenlong, Xiong Pei, Zhang Xueyang, Liu Zhi, Chen Jinhuan, Zhou Yu, Ye Xiaohua, Zhang Chao,

(3) Spiramycin and azithromycin, safe for children administration, exert anti-viral activity against enterovirus A71 in vitro and in vivo.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30599241
Publication Date : //
Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral disease in young children, mainly caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16). Specific anti-viral agents are not commercially available yet. Here we report that the macrolide antibiotics spiramycin (SPM) and azithromycin (AZM) possess anti-viral activities against EV-A71 and CV-A16. SPM significantly reduced EV-A71 RNA and protein levels, most likely through interfering with viral RNA replication. The SPM-resistant EV-A71 variants showed similar resistance to AZM, indicating a similar anti-EV-A71 mechanism by which these two drugs exert their functions. The mutations of these variants were reproducibly mapped to VP1 and 2A, which were confirmed to confer resistance to SPM. Animal experiments showed that AZM possesses stronger anti-infection efficacy than SPM, greatly alleviated the disease symptoms and increased the survival rate in a mouse model severely infected with EV-A71. In all, our work suggests that AZM is a potential treatment option for EV-A71-induced HFMD, whose proved safety for infants and children makes it even more promising.

Authors : Zeng Shinuan, Meng Xiaobin, Huang Qingyuan, Lei Nanfeng, Zeng Lingbin, Jiang Xinying, Guo Xuemin,

(4) Potent neutralization activity against type O foot-and-mouth disease virus elicited by a conserved type O neutralizing epitope displayed on bovine parvovirus virus-like particles.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30547855
Publication Date : //
In this study, ten sites on the N terminus and different surface variable regions (VRs) of the bovine parvovirus (BPV) VP2 capsid protein were selected according to an alignment of its sequence with that of the BPV-1 strain HADEN for insertion of the type O foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) conserved neutralizing epitope 8E8. Ten epitope-chimeric BPV VP2 capsid proteins carrying the 8E8 epitope were expressed in Sf9 cells, and electron micrographs demonstrated that these fusion proteins self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) with properties similar to those of natural BPV virions. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot analysis demonstrated that each of the ten epitope-chimeric VLPs reacted with both anti-BPV serum and anti-type O FMDV mAb 8E8. These results indicated that insertions of the 8E8 epitope at these sites on the BPV VP2 protein did not interfere with the immunoreactivity of VP2 or VLP formation, and that the exogenous epitope 8E8 was correctly expressed in BPV VLPs. In addition, anti-BPV IgG antibodies were induced in mice by intramuscular inoculation with each of the ten chimeric VLPs, indicating that the immunogenicity of the chimeric VLPs was not disrupted. Importantly, potent anti-FMDV viral neutralizing (VN) antibodies, which exhibited the highest titre of 1 : 176, were induced by two chimeric VLPs, rBPV-VLP-8E8(391) and rBPV-VLP-8E8(395), in which the 8E8 epitope was inserted into positions 391/392 and 395/396, respectively, in the VR VIII of BPV VP2. Our results demonstrated that the 391/392 and 395/396 positions in the VR VIII of the BPV VP2 protein can effectively display a foreign epitope, making this an attractive approach for the design of nanoparticle-vectored and epitope-based vaccines.

Authors : Chang Jitao, Zhang Yue, Yang Decheng, Jiang Zhigang, Wang Fang, Yu Li,

(5) Enterovirus A71 Infection Activates Human Immune Responses and Induces Pathological Changes in Humanized Mice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30429352
Publication Date : //
Since the discovery of enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) half a century ago, it has been recognized as the cause of large-scale outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease worldwide, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region, causing great concern for public health and economic burdens. Detailed mechanisms on the modulation of immune responses after EV-A71 infection have not been fully known, and the lack of appropriate models hinders the development of promising vaccines and drugs. In the present study, NOD- (NSG) mice with a human immune system (humanized mice) at the age of 4 weeks were found to be susceptible to a human isolate of EV-A71 infection. After infection, humanized mice displayed limb weakness, which is similar to the clinical features found in some of the EV-A71-infected patients. Histopathological examination indicated the presence of vacuolation, gliosis, or meningomyelitis in brain stem and spinal cord, which were accompanied by high viral loads detected in these organs. The numbers of activated human CD4 and CD8 T cells were upregulated after EV-A71 infection, and EV-A71-specific human T cell responses were found. Furthermore, the secretion of several proinflammatory cytokines, such as human gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and IL-17A, was elevated in the EV-A71-infected humanized mice. Taken together, our results suggested that the humanized mouse model permits insights into the human immune responses and the pathogenesis of EV-A71 infection, which may provide a platform for the evaluation of anti-EV-A71 drug candidates in the future. Despite causing self-limited hand-food-and-mouth disease in younger children, EV-A71 is consistently associated with severe forms of neurological complications and pulmonary edema. Nevertheless, only limited vaccines and drugs have been developed over the years, which is possibly due to a lack of models that can more accurately recapitulate human specificity, since human is the only natural host for wild-type EV-A71 infection. Our humanized mouse model not only mimics histological symptoms in patients but also allows us to investigate the function of the human immune system during infection. It was found that human T cell responses were activated, accompanied by an increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines in EV-A71-infected humanized mice, which might contribute to the exacerbation of disease pathogenesis. Collectively, this model allows us to delineate the modulation of human immune responses during EV-A71 infection and may provide a platform to evaluate anti-EV-A71 drug candidates in the future.

Authors : Ke Yanyan, Liu Wai Nam, Her Zhisheng, Liu Min, Tan Sue Yee, Tan Yong Wah, Chan Xue Ying, Fan Yong, Huang Edwin Kunxiang, Chen Huiyi, En Chang Kenneth Tou, Chan Jerry Kok Yen, Hann Chu Justin Jang, Chen Qingfeng,

(6) Competitive Luminex immunoassays for detection of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses in multiple susceptible hosts.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30363380
Publication Date : //
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and vesicular stomatitis (VS) cause such similar clinical signs and lesions that laboratory tests are required to distinguish between infections caused by each virus. Using mouse anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 3B monoclonal or polyclonal anti-vesicular stomatitis virus-New Jersey (VSV-NJ) antibodies and recombinant FMDV 3ABC or VSV-NJ glycoprotein (G) antigens coated to MagPlex beads, competitive Luminex immunoassays (cLIAs) were developed for FMDV and VSV-NJ, respectively. The cLIAs successfully detected antibodies to FMDV 3ABC and VSV-NJ G in sera from infected animals. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 98%, respectively for FMDV and 93% and 95.4%, respectively for VSV-NJ. These cLIAs are potential alternatives for competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISAs) and provide the opportunity for multiplexing to reduce time and the amount of serum required for testing.

Authors : Nfon Charles, Lusansky Diana, Goolia Melissa, Yang Ming, Hole Kate, McIntyre Leanne,

(7) Virus-like particles of recombinant PCV2b carrying FMDV-VP1 epitopes induce both anti-PCV and anti-FMDV antibody responses.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30338355
Publication Date : //
Mixed infection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is devastating to swine populations. To develop an effective vaccine that can protect the pigs from the infection of PCV2 and FMDV, we used the neutralizing B cell epitope region (aa 135-160) of FMDV to replace the regions aa 123-151 and aa 169-194 of the PCV2b Cap protein to generate a recombinant protein designated as Capfb. The Capfb protein was expressed in Escherichia coli system and the purified Capfb protein assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) through dialysis. The ability of the Capfb protein to induce effective immune response against FMDV and PCV2b was tested in mice and guinea pigs. The results showed that the Capfb-VLPs could elicit anti-PCV2b and anti-FMDV antibody response in mice and guinea pigs without inducing antibodies against decoy epitope. Moreover, the Capfb-VLPs could enhance the percentage and activation of B cells in lymph nodes when the mice were stimulated with inactivated FMDV or PCV2b. These data suggested that the Capfb-VLPs could be an efficacious candidate antigen for developing a novel PCV2b-FMDV bivalent vaccine.

Authors : Li Xin, Meng Xiuping, Wang Shengnan, Li Zhiqin, Yang Lei, Tu Liqun, Diao Wenzhen, Yu Cheng, Yu Yongli, Yan Chaoying, Wang Liying,

(8) Immune Modulatory Potential of Anti-idiotype Antibodies as a Surrogate of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Antigen.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30333183
Publication Date : //
The immunoprophylactic potential of anti-idiotype (anti-id) foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) antigen (Ag) was evaluated in the calves. The idiotype antibodies (Ab1) were produced in experimental goats by injecting inactivated FMD virus. The Fab (fragment antigen binding) of Ab1 was injected into the layer birds to raise anti-id antibodies (Ab2). The Ab2 was purified from egg yolks. The Fab component of Ab2 was emulsified in Montanide (1:1) and used as a surrogate of FMD virus. The immune response to Montanide adjuvanted monovalent and trivalent anti-id FMD virus antigen was determined in mice. The comparative immune potentiation potentials of Montanide adjuvanted trivalent anti-id FMD virus antigen and trivalent FMD vaccine were determined in mice and calves. Montanide adjuvanted monovalent anti-id FMD virus antigens produced mean Ab titers of 78.80%, 81.30%, and 81.20% for serotypes A, Asia 1, and O, respectively, at 45 days postimmunization (p.i.) in mice. Montanide adjuvanted trivalent anti-id FMD Ag in mice produced the highest Ab titer, 81.60%, at day 45 compared to the 77.50% titer measured for Montanide adjuvanted FMD vaccine at day 45 p.i. A slow decrease of 1% to 2% was recorded for the Ab titer of Montanide adjuvanted trivalent anti-id FMD virus antigen in mice at day 60. In calves, the titer corresponding to the immune response seen with Montanide adjuvanted trivalent anti-id FMD virus antigen (80%) was persistent whereas the titer of Montanide adjuvanted FMD vaccine decreased to 74% at day 60 p.i. Anti-id FMD virus antigen induced a strong and persistent immunogenic response in terms of Ab titer compared to the inactivated virus vaccine. Anti-id FMD virus antigen may serve as a surrogate of FMD virus vaccine. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious viral disease of animals. Multiple serotypes and antigenic variation in the viral genome are probably the factors that reduce control of the disease. Currently, the vaccines employed against FMD use killed virus. The inactivation or killing of the virus makes it less immunogenic and reduces its immunoprophylactic potential. To cope with this situation, the present study was designed, anti-idiotype FMD virus antigen was prepared, and the immunogenic potential of the antigen was compared to that of commercial killed-virus vaccines. The overall results showed that a persistent and strong immune response occurred with anti-idiotype FMD virus antigen. Thus, anti-idiotype FMD virus antigen may serve as a potential surrogate of FMD virus vaccines.

Authors : Naveed Ahsan, Rahman Sajjad Ur, Arshad Muhammad Imran, Aslam Bilal,

(9) Generation and characterisation of recombinant FMDV antibodies: Applications for advancing diagnostic and laboratory assays.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30114227
Publication Date : //
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) affects economically important livestock and is one of the most contagious viral diseases. The most commonly used FMD diagnostic assay is a sandwich ELISA. However, the main disadvantage of this ELISA is that it requires anti-FMD virus (FMDV) serotype-specific antibodies raised in small animals. This problem can be, in part, overcome by using anti-FMDV monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) as detecting reagents. However, the long-term use of MAbs may be problematic and they may need to be replaced. Here we have constructed chimeric antibodies (mouse/rabbit D9) and Fabs (fragment antigen-binding) (mouse/cattle D9) using the Fv (fragment variable) regions of a mouse MAb, D9 (MAb D9), which recognises type O FMDV. The mouse/rabbit D9 chimeric antibody retained the FMDV serotype-specificity of MAb D9 and performed well in a FMDV detection ELISA as well as in routine laboratory assays. Cryo-electron microscopy analysis confirmed engagement with antigenic site 1 and peptide competition studies identified the aspartic acid at residue VP1 147 as a novel component of the D9 epitope. This chimeric expression approach is a simple but effective way to preserve valuable FMDV antibodies, and has the potential for unlimited generation of antibodies and antibody fragments in recombinant systems with the concomitant positive impacts on the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) principles.

Authors : Shimmon Gareth, Kotecha Abhay, Ren Jingshan, Asfor Amin S, Newman Joseph, Berryman Stephen, Cottam Eleanor M, Gold Sarah, Tuthill Toby J, King Donald P, Brocchi Emiliana, King Andrew M Q, Owens Ray, Fry Elizabeth E, Stuart David I, Burman Alison, Jackson Terry,

(10) Dissecting complicated viral spreading of enterovirus 71 using in situ bioorthogonal fluorescent labeling.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30086449
Publication Date : //
Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the major pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFDM), can cause severe neurological and respiratory manifestations in young children. Viral spread route and tissue tropism are key factors contributing to different pathogenicity of EV71, however it remains a challenge to dynamically visualize EV71 infection in vivo. The present study applies an in situ bioorthogonal fluorescent labeling strategy to track clinically isolated EV71 strains with different pathogenicity in neonatal mice. The results show that the in situ labeling strategy effectively captures EV71 viruses through in vivo bioorthogonal reaction in multiple infected organs without interfering viral spread and tissue tropism. More importantly, the in situ labeling reveals different viral dynamics, dissemination, and tissue tropism of severe case EV71 (SC-EV71) and mild case EV71 (MC-EV71), consistent with their different pathogenicity in HFDM patients. Compared with MC-EV71, SC-EV71 not only enters the blood circulation and spreads out more quickly, but also shows more significant neuronal and respiratory tropism, which certainly contribute severe neurological complications and clinical manifestations in the patient. Hence, the in situ bioorthogonal fluorescent labeling is a plausible strategy to dissect complicated process of EV71 viral spread in the early stage of infection, thereby offering great opportunities to understand its pathogenesis and develop anti-viral drugs.

Authors : Pan Hong, Yao Xiangjie, Chen Weihua, Wang Fangfang, He Huamei, Liu Lanlan, He Yaqing, Chen Jinquan, Jiang Puzi, Zhang Renli, Ma Yifan, Cai Lintao,