Free Shipping on orders over 50$

British Pound Sterling - GBP Euro - EUR US Dollar - USD (EUR)

Welcom to Gentaur Biotech Products!


Be the first to review this product

Availability: In stock


Quick Overview



Product Tags

Use spaces to separate tags. Use single quotes (') for phrases.

(1) Antisense oligonucleotide targeting CD39 improves anti-tumor T cell immunity.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30871609
Publication Date : //
Cancer cells are known to develop mechanisms to circumvent effective anti-tumor immunity. The two ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 are promising drug targets, as they act in concert to convert extracellular immune-stimulating ATP to adenosine. CD39 is expressed by different immune cell populations as well as cancer cells of different tumor types and supports the tumor in escaping immune recognition and destruction. Thus, increasing extracellular ATP and simultaneously reducing adenosine concentrations in the tumor can lead to effective anti-tumor immunity.

Authors : Kashyap Abhishek S, Thelemann Tamara, Klar Richard, Kallert Sandra M, Festag Julia, Buchi Melanie, Hinterwimmer Lisa, Schell Monika, Michel Sven, Jaschinski Frank, Zippelius Alfred,

(2) Targeting CD39 Toward Activated Platelets Reduces Systemic Inflammation and Improves Survival in Sepsis: A Preclinical Pilot Study.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30730441
Publication Date : //
Sepsis is associated with a systemic inflammatory reaction, which can result in a life-endangering organ dysfunction. Pro-inflammatory responses during sepsis are characterized by increased activation of leukocytes and platelets, formation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates, and cytokine production. Sequestration of platelet-neutrophil aggregates in the microvasculature contributes to tissue damage during sepsis. At present no effective therapeutic strategy to ameliorate these events is available. In this preclinical pilot study, a novel anti-inflammatory approach was evaluated, which targets nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase activity toward activated platelets via a recombinant fusion protein combining a single-chain antibody against activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and the extracellular domain of CD39 (targ-CD39).

Authors : Granja Tiago, Körner Andreas, Glück Christian, Hohmann Jan David, Wang Xiaowei, Köhler David, Streißenberger Ariane, Nandurkar Harshal H, Mirakaj Valbona, Rosenberger Peter, Peter Karlheinz, Straub Andreas,

(3) Interleukin 2 Promotes Hepatic Regulatory T Cell Responses and Protects From Biliary Fibrosis in Murine Sclerosing Cholangitis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29698570
Publication Date : //
In the multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mdr2) mouse model, low phospholipid bile instigates biliary epithelial injury, sterile inflammation, and fibrosis, thereby recapitulating disease mechanisms implicated in biliary atresia (BA) and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We hypothesize that T lymphocytes contribute to the biliary injury and fibrosis in murine sclerosing cholangitis (SC) and that they are susceptible to suppression by regulatory T cells (Tregs). In juvenile Mdr2 mice, intrahepatic CD8+ lymphocytes were expanded, and contraction of intrahepatic Tregs coincided with rising serum alanine transferase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels between days 14-30 of life. Antibody-mediated depletion of intrahepatic CD8+ lymphocytes during that time reduced ALP levels and the expression of osteopontin (Opn), a pro-fibrogenic cytokine. Depletion of intrahepatic Tregs with anti-CD25 antibody between days 7-30 increased intrahepatic CD8+ T cells, Opn expression, and fibrosis. Conversely, expansion of intrahepatic Tregs with interleukin 2/anti-interleukin 2 immune complexes (IL-2c) downregulated hepatic expression of Opn and Tnf, reduced frequency of intrahepatic CD8+ lymphocytes, and diminished biliary injury and fibrosis. Treatment with IL-2c upregulated hepatic Treg expression of CD39, an ectonucleotidase capable of hydrolyzing pro-inflammatory adenosine triphosphate. In vitro, Tregs expressing CD39 suppressed the proliferation of hepatic CD8+ lymphocytes from Mdr2 mice more efficiently than those lacking CD39. In infants with BA, infiltration of interlobular bile ducts with CD8+ cells was associated with biliary expression of Opn and its transcription was negatively correlated with mRNA expression of Treg-associated genes. Conclusion: Hepatic CD8+ T lymphocytes drive biliary injury and fibrosis in murine SC. Their proliferation is controlled by hepatic Tregs through the purinergic pathway, which is responsive to IL-2c, suggesting that Treg-directed low-dose Il-2 treatment may be considered as therapy for SC.

Authors : Taylor Amy E, Carey Alexandra N, Kudira Ramesh, Lages Celine S, Shi Tiffany, Lam Simon, Karns Rebekah, Simmons Julia, Shanmukhappa Kumar, Almanan Maha, Chougnet Claire A, Miethke Alexander G,

(4) CD39 and CD73 activity are protective in a mouse model of antiphospholipid antibody-induced miscarriages.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29103803
Publication Date : //
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder of young adults associated with devastating pregnancy complications (recurrent miscarriages, preeclampsia and low birth weight) and vascular complications including thrombosis. The key components implicated in pathogenesis of APS are the complement cascade and tissue factor (TF) activity causing inflammation and coagulation. Purinergic signalling involving catabolism of ATP to adenosine by cell-surface enzymes CD39 and CD73 has anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects. We studied whether activities of CD39 and CD73 are important in preventing the development of miscarriages in APS.

Authors : Samudra Anushka N, Dwyer Karen M, Selan Carly, Freddi Susanna, Murray-Segal Lisa, Nikpour Mandana, Hickey Michael J, Peter Karlheinz, Robson Simon C, Sashindranath Maithili, Cowan Peter J, Nandurkar Harshal H,

(5) Ex vivo-expanded baboon CD39 +  regulatory T cells prevent rejection of porcine islet xenografts in NOD-SCID IL-2rγ mice reconstituted with baboon peripheral blood mononuclear cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28963731
Publication Date : //
A high immunosuppressive burden is required for long-term islet xenograft survival in non-human primates even using genetically modified donor pigs.

Authors : Huang Dandan, Wang Ya, Hawthorne Wayne J, Hu Min, Hawkes Joanne, Burns Heather, Davies Sussan, Gao Feng, Chew Yi Vee, Yi Shounan, O'Connell Philip J,

(6) Regulatory T cell frequencies and phenotypes following anti-viral vaccination.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28658271
Publication Date : //
Regulatory T cells (Treg) function in the prevention of excessive inflammation and maintenance of immunological homeostasis. However, these cells may also interfere with resolution of infections or with immune reactions following vaccination. Effects of Treg on vaccine responses are nowadays investigated, but the impact of vaccination on Treg homeostasis is still largely unknown. This may be a relevant safety aspect, since loss of tolerance through reduced Treg may trigger autoimmunity. In exploratory clinical trials, healthy adults were vaccinated with an influenza subunit vaccine plus or minus the adjuvant MF59®, an adjuvanted hepatitis B subunit vaccine or a live attenuated yellow fever vaccine. Frequencies and phenotypes of resting (rTreg) and activated (aTreg) subpopulations of circulating CD4+ Treg were determined and compared to placebo immunization. Vaccination with influenza vaccines did not result in significant changes in Treg frequencies and phenotypes. Vaccination with the hepatitis B vaccine led to slightly increased frequencies of both rTreg and aTreg subpopulations and a decrease in expression of functionality marker CD39 on aTreg. The live attenuated vaccine resulted in a decrease in rTreg frequency, and an increase in expression of activation marker CD25 on both subpopulations, possibly indicating a conversion from resting to migratory aTreg due to vaccine virus replication. To study the more local effects of vaccination on Treg in lymphoid organs, we immunized mice and analyzed the CD4+ Treg frequency and phenotype in draining lymph nodes and spleen. Vaccination resulted in a transient local decrease in Treg frequency in lymph nodes, followed by a systemic Treg increase in the spleen. Taken together, we showed that vaccination with vaccines with an already established safe profile have only minimal impact on frequencies and characteristics of Treg over time. These findings may serve as a bench-mark of inter-individual variation of Treg frequencies and phenotypes following vaccination.

Authors : de Wolf A Charlotte M T, van Aalst Susan, Ludwig Irene S, Bodinham Caroline L, Lewis David J, van der Zee Ruurd, van Eden Willem, Broere Femke,

(7) Adenosine and adenosine receptors in the immunopathogenesis and treatment of cancer.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28233320
Publication Date : //
Tumor cells overcome anti-tumor responses in part through immunosuppressive mechanisms. There are several immune modulatory mechanisms. Among them, adenosine is an important factor which is generated by both cancer and immune cells in tumor microenvironment to suppress anti-tumor responses. Two cell surface expressed molecules including CD73 and CD39 catalyze the generation of adenosine from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The generation of adenosine can be enhanced under metabolic stress like tumor hypoxic conditions. Adenosine exerts its immune regulatory functions through four different adenosine receptors (ARs) including A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 which are expressed on various immune cells. Several studies have indicated the overexpression of adenosine generating enzymes and ARs in various cancers which was correlated with tumor progression. Since the signaling of ARs enhances tumor progression, their manipulation can be promising therapeutic approach in cancer therapy. Accordingly, several agonists and antagonists against ARs have been designed for cancer therapy. In this review, we will try to clarify the role of different ARs in the immunopathogenesis, as well as their role in the treatment of cancer.

Authors : Kazemi Mohammad H, Raoofi Mohseni Sahar, Hojjat-Farsangi Mohammad, Anvari Enayat, Ghalamfarsa Ghasem, Mohammadi Hamed, Jadidi-Niaragh Farhad,

(8) IL-6 promotes M2 macrophage polarization by modulating purinergic signaling and regulates the lethal release of nitric oxide during Trypanosoma cruzi infection.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28087471
Publication Date : //
The production of nitric oxide (NO) is a key defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens but it must be tightly controlled in order to avoid excessive detrimental oxidative stress. In this study we described a novel mechanism through which interleukin (IL)-6 mediates the regulation of NO release induced in response to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Using a murine model of Chagas disease, we found that, in contrast to C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice, IL-6-deficient (IL6KO) mice exhibited a dramatic increase in plasma NO levels concomitant with a significantly higher amount of circulating IL-1β and inflammatory monocytes. Studies on mouse macrophages and human monocytes, revealed that IL-6 decreased LPS-induced NO production but this effect was abrogated in the presence of anti-IL-1β and in macrophages deficient in the NLRP3 inflammasome. In accordance, while infected WT myocardium exhibited an early shift from microbicidal/M1 to anti-inflammatory/M2 macrophage phenotype, IL6KO cardiac tissue never displayed a dominant M2 macrophage profile that correlated with decreased expression of ATP metabolic machinery and a lower cardiac parasite burden. The deleterious effects of high NO production-induced oxidative stress were evidenced by enhanced cardiac malondialdehyde levels, myocardial cell death and mortality. The survival rate was improved by the treatment of IL-6-deficient mice with a NO production-specific inhibitor. Our data revealed that IL-6 regulates the excessive release of NO through IL-1β inhibition and determines the establishment of an M2 macrophage profile within infected heart tissue.

Authors : Sanmarco Liliana M, Ponce Nicolás E, Visconti Laura M, Eberhardt Natalia, Theumer Martin G, Minguez Ángel R, Aoki Maria P,

(9) Alteration of CD39+Foxp3+ CD4 T cell and cytokine levels in EAE/MS following anti-CD52 treatment.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28087077
Publication Date : //
While examining the therapeutic value of anti-CD52 antibody against EAE/MS, we identified a unique subset of CD39+ Tregs in repopulating GALT tissues, a major lymphoid reservoir, which was accompanied by amelioration of disease. Furthermore, anti-CD52 treatment leads to increased expression of BDNF, IL-10, and SMAD3 in the brains of EAE mice. This condition is associated with suppression of IL-17, a critical inflammatory factor in EAE/MS progression. Additionally, we found elevated levels of CD4+CD39+ Tregs in PBMCs of RRMS patients treated with humanized anti-CD52 mAb. Thus, anti-CD52 can affect multiple immune mediated pathways involved in the pathogenesis of EAE/MS.

Authors : Pant Anudeep B, Wang Yan, Mielcarz Daniel W, Kasper Eli J, Telesford Kiel M, Mishra Megan, Haque Azizul, Channon Jacqueline Y, Kasper Lloyd H, Begum-Haque Sakhina,

(10) Reduced interleukin-2 responsiveness impairs the ability of Treg cells to compete for IL-2 in nonobese diabetic mice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :26763864
Publication Date : //
Enhancement of regulatory T cell (Treg cell) frequency and function is the goal of many therapeutic strategies aimed at treating type 1 diabetes (T1D). The interleukin-2 (IL-2) pathway, which has been strongly implicated in T1D susceptibility in both humans and mice, is a master regulator of Treg cell homeostasis and function. We investigated how IL-2 pathway defects impact Treg cells in T1D-susceptible nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice in comparison with protected C57BL/6 and NOD congenic mice. NOD Treg cells were reduced in frequency specifically in the lymph nodes and expressed lower levels of CD25 and CD39/CD73 immunosuppressive molecules. In the spleen and blood, Treg cell frequency was preserved through expansion of CD25(low), effector phenotype Treg cells. Reduced CD25 expression led to decreased IL-2 signaling in NOD Treg cells. In vivo, treatment with IL-2-anti-IL-2 antibody complexes led to effective upregulation of suppressive molecules on NOD Treg cells in the spleen and blood, but had reduced efficacy on lymph node Treg cells. In contrast, NOD CD8(+) and CD4(+) effector T cells were not impaired in their response to IL-2 therapy. We conclude that NOD Treg cells have an impaired responsiveness to IL-2 that reduces their ability to compete for a limited supply of IL-2.

Authors : James Cini R, Buckle Irina, Muscate Franziska, Otsuka Masayuki, Nakao Mari, Oon Jack Sh, Steptoe Raymond J, Thomas Ranjeny, Hamilton-Williams Emma E,