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(1) Generation of Monoclonal Antibodies against Immunoglobulin Proteins of the Domestic Ferret ().[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28286781
Publication Date : //
The domestic ferret () serves as an animal model for the study of several viruses that cause human disease, most notably influenza. Despite the importance of this animal model, characterization of the immune response by flow cytometry (FCM) is severely hampered due to the limited number of commercially available reagents. To begin to address this unmet need and to facilitate more in-depth study of ferret B cells including the identification of antibody-secreting cells, eight unique murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with specificity for ferret immunoglobulin (Ig) were generated using conventional B cell hybridoma technology. These mAb were screened for reactivity against ferret peripheral blood mononuclear cells by FCM and demonstrate specificity for CD79 B cells. Several of these mAb are specific for the light chain of surface B cell receptor (BCR) and enable segregation of kappa and lambda B cells. Additionally, a mAb that yielded surface staining of nearly all surface BCR positive cells (, pan ferret Ig) was generated. Collectively, these MF-Ig mAb offer advancement compared to the existing portfolio of polyclonal anti-ferret Ig detection reagents and should be applicable to a wide array of immunologic assays including the identification of antibody-secreting cells by FCM.

Authors : Kirchenbaum Greg A, Ross Ted M,

(2) Simultaneous Inhibition of PI3Kδ and PI3Kα Induces ABC-DLBCL Regression by Blocking BCR-Dependent and -Independent Activation of NF-κB and AKT.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28073005
Publication Date : //
Compared with follicular lymphoma, high PI3Kα expression was more prevalent in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), although both tumor types expressed substantial PI3Kδ. Simultaneous inhibition of PI3Kα and PI3Kδ dramatically enhanced the anti-tumor profile in ABC-DLBCL models compared with selective inhibition of PI3Kδ, PI3Kα, or BTK. The anti-tumor activity was associated with suppression of p-AKT and a mechanism of blocking nuclear factor-κB activation driven by CD79, CARD11, TNFAIP3, or MYD88. Inhibition of PI3Kα/δ resulted in tumor regression in an ibrutinib-resistant CD79B/MYD88 patient-derived ABC-DLBCL model. Furthermore, rebound activation of BTK and AKT was identified as a mechanism limiting CD79B-ABC-DLBCL to show a robust response to PI3K and BTK inhibitor monotherapies. A combination of ibrutinib with the PI3Kα/δ inhibitor copanlisib produced a sustained complete response in vivo in CD79B/MYD88 ABC-DLBCL models.

Authors : Paul Juliane, Soujon Maurice, Wengner Antje M, Zitzmann-Kolbe Sabine, Sturz Andrea, Haike Katja, Keng Magdalene Koh Hui, Tan Sze Huey, Lange Martin, Tan Soo Yong, Mumberg Dominik, Lim Soon Thye, Ziegelbauer Karl, Liu Ningshu,

(3) Rewired NFκB signaling as a potentially actionable feature of activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27526684
Publication Date : //
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of aggressive lymphoma in the Western world and remains a clinical challenge. Two types of DLBCL are distinguishable, namely a germinal center B-cell-like phenotype (GCB) and an activated B-cell-like phenotype (ABC). Particularly ABC-DLBCL is difficult to treat, as this subentity typically displays resistance against frontline chemo-immune therapy. Through the availability of novel experimental technologies, such as next-generation sequencing and cutting-edge mouse models, we recently caught an unprecedentedly detailed glimpse at the genomic and biological features of ABC-DLBCL. Currently, a picture is emerging which suggests that ABC-DLBCL critically depends on sustained activity of the NFκB pathway, which, among others, is achieved through numerous distinct genetic aberrations, including CD79A/B-, CARD11-, and MYD88 mutations. Further genomic aberrations include amplifications of BCL2 and inactivating mutations in PRMD1. These molecular insights have spurred the development of novel autochthonous mouse models that faithfully mimic the biology and genetics of human ABC-DLBCL and could serve as preclinical platforms in future experiments. Furthermore, our genomic understanding of the disease now enables us to develop and validate novel targeted therapeutic intervention strategies that aim at decapitating non-physiological NFκB activity and repressing anti-apoptotic BCL2 signaling. In this review, we highlight these recent developments and make suggestions for further tool development and the design and stratification of future clinical trials.

Authors : Knittel Gero, Liedgens Paul, Korovkina Darya, Pallasch Christian P, Reinhardt Hans Christian,

(4) A Novel Anti-CD22 Anthracycline-Based Antibody-Drug Conjugate (ADC) That Overcomes Resistance to Auristatin-Based ADCs.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :25840969
Publication Date : //
We are interested in identifying mechanisms of resistance to the current generation of antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) and developing ADCs that can overcome this resistance.

Authors : Yu Shang-Fan, Zheng Bing, Go MaryAnn, Lau Jeff, Spencer Susan, Raab Helga, Soriano Robert, Jhunjhunwala Suchit, Cohen Robert, Caruso Michele, Polakis Paul, Flygare John, Polson Andrew G,

(5) Rehabilitation or the death penalty: autoimmune B cells in the dock.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :25639261
Publication Date : //
CD20-based monoclonal antibodies have become established as treatments for lymphoma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis and dermatomyositis, with the principle therapeutic mechanism relating to B-cell depletion through effector cell engagement. An article by Brühl et al. in this issue of the European Journal of Immunology [Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45: 705-715] reveals a fundamentally distinct mechanism of silencing autoimmune B-cell responses. Rather than B-cell depletion, the authors use anti-CD79b antibodies to induce B-cell tolerance and suppress humoral immune responses against collagen to prevent the development of arthritis in mice. Here we highlight the differences in the mechanisms used by anti-CD20 and anti-CD79b Ab therapy and discuss why depletion of B cells may not be required to treat autoimmune arthritis and other B-cell-associated pathologies.

Authors : Dahal Lekh N, Cragg Mark S,

(6) Cloning of a hamster anti-mouse CD79B antibody sequences and identification of a new hamster immunoglobulin lambda constant IGLC gene region.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23558558
Publication Date : //
Anti-CD79 antibodies have been effective at targeting B cell lymphoma cells and depleting B cells in animal models. In order to engineer recombinant antibodies with additional effector functions in mice, we cloned and sequenced the full-length cDNAs of the heavy and light chain of a hamster anti-mouse CD79B antibody. Although hamster antibodies represent a unique source of monoclonal antibodies against mouse, rat, and human antigens, sequence information of hamster immunoglobulins (IG) is sparse. Here, we report a new hamster (Cricetulus migratorius) IG lambda constant (IGLC) gene region that is most homologous to mouse IGLC2 and IGLC3.

Authors : Haggart Ryan, Perera Jason, Huang Haochu,

(7) B cell depletion therapy exacerbates murine primary biliary cirrhosis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :21274873
Publication Date : //
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is considered a model autoimmune disease due to the clinical homogeneity of patients and the classic hallmark of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs). Indeed, the presence of AMAs represents the most highly directed and specific autoantibody in autoimmune diseases. However, the contribution of B cells to the pathogenesis of PBC is unclear. Therefore, although AMAs appear to interact with the biliary cell apotope and contribute to biliary pathology, there is no correlation of disease severity and titer of AMAs. The recent development of well-characterized monoclonal antibodies specific for the B cell populations, anti-CD20 and anti-CD79, and the development of a well-defined xenobiotic-induced model of autoimmune cholangitis prompted us to use these reagents and the model to address the contribution of B cells in the pathogenesis of murine PBC. Prior to the induction of autoimmune cholangitis, mice were treated with either anti-CD20, anti-CD79, or isotype-matched control monoclonal antibody and followed for B cell development, the appearance of AMAs, liver pathology, and cytokine production. Results of the studies reported herein show that the in vivo depletion of B cells using either anti-CD20 or anti-CD79 led to the development of a more severe form of cholangitis than observed in control mice, which is in contrast with results from several other autoimmune models that have documented an important therapeutic role of B cell-specific depletion. Anti-CD20/CD79-treated mice had increased liver T cell infiltrates and higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines.

Authors : Dhirapong Amy, Lleo Ana, Yang Guo-Xiang, Tsuneyama Koichi, Dunn Robert, Kehry Marilyn, Packard Thomas A, Cambier John C, Liu Fu-Tong, Lindor Keith, Coppel Ross L, Ansari Aftab A, Gershwin M Eric,

(8) In vivo effects of targeting CD79b with antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :19808977
Publication Date : //
Antibodies directed against B cells are in use for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and autoimmune disorders. The B-cell-restricted surface antigen CD79b, a signaling component of the B-cell receptor, has been shown as a promising antibody target in mouse efficacy models of systemic lupus erythematosus. Anti-CD79b antibody-drug conjugates (ADC), cytotoxic drugs linked through specialized chemical linkers to antibodies, are effective in mouse xenograft models of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We were interested in evaluating the systemic effects of anti-CD79b antibodies and ADCs in normal animals as a step toward the development of these molecules as therapeutics. As we were unable to identify any cell surface binding anti-human CD79b antibodies that were cross-reactive to other species, we developed an antibody to cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) CD79b (anti-cyCD79b). The anti-cynomolgus antibody, anti-cyCD79b (10D10), and the maytansine (tubulin inhibitor)-conjugated ADC, anti-cyCD79b (10D10)-MCC-DM1, were administered to cynomolgus monkeys at approximately 30 mg/kg (6,000 microg DM1/m(2)) for two doses 3 weeks apart. Anti-cyCD79b and anti-cyCD79b-MCC-DM1 resulted in peripheral blood B-cell depletion of approximately 65% and approximately 94%, respectively. In addition, anti-cyCD79b-MCC-DM1 resulted in near-complete absence of splenic germinal centers, an observation supporting an effect on dividing B cells. Both molecules were well tolerated, with minimal findings for the antibody and findings for the ADC limited to the lymphoid and hematopoietic systems, liver, and peripheral nerves. These preclinical data suggest that targeting CD79b with antibodies or ADCs may provide safe and effective therapies for B-cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases.

Authors : Zheng Bing, Fuji Reina N, Elkins Kristi, Yu Shang-Fan, Fuh Franklin K, Chuh Josefa, Tan Christine, Hongo Jo-Anne, Raab Helga, Kozak Katherine R, Williams Marna, McDorman Elena, Eaton Dan, Ebens Allen, Polson Andrew G,

(9) Therapeutic potential of an anti-CD79b antibody-drug conjugate, anti-CD79b-vc-MMAE, for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :19633198
Publication Date : //
Here we describe the generation of an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) consisting of a humanized anti-CD79b antibody that is conjugated to monomethylauristatin E (MMAE) through engineered cysteines (THIOMABs) by a protease cleavable linker. By using flow cytometry, we detected the surface expression of CD79b in almost all non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, suggesting that anti-CD79b-vcMMAE could be widely used in these malignancies. By using NHL cell lines to simulate a patient population we discovered that a minimal cell-surface expression level of CD79b was required for in vitro activity. Within the subpopulation of cell lines above this minimal threshold, we found that sensitivity to free MMAE, mutation of cancer genes, and cell doubling time were poorly correlated with in vitro activity; however, the expression level of BCL-XL was correlated with reduced sensitivity to anti-CD79b-vcMMAE. This observation was supported by in vivo data showing that a Bcl-2 family inhibitor, ABT-263, strikingly enhanced the activity of anti-CD79b-vcMMAE. Furthermore, anti-CD79b-vcMMAE was significantly more effective than a standard-of-care regimen, R-CHOP (ie, rituximab with a single intravenous injection of 30 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, 2.475 mg/kg doxorubicin, 0.375 mg/kg vincristine, and oral dosing of 0.15 mg/kg prednisone once a day for 5 days), in 3 xenograft models of NHL. Together, these data suggest that anti-CD79b-vcMMAE could be broadly efficacious for the treatment of NHL.

Authors : Dornan David, Bennett Fiona, Chen Yvonne, Dennis Mark, Eaton Dan, Elkins Kristi, French Dorothy, Go Mary Ann T, Jack Andrew, Junutula Jagath R, Koeppen Hartmut, Lau Jeffrey, McBride Jacqueline, Rawstron Andy, Shi Xiaoyan, Yu Nancy, Yu Shang-Fan, Yue Peng, Zheng Bing, Ebens Allen, Polson Andrew G,

(10) Antibody-drug conjugates targeted to CD79 for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :17374736
Publication Date : //
Targeting cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells using antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), particularly those with stable linkers between the drug and the antibody, could be an effective cancer treatment with low toxicity. However, for stable-linker ADCs to be effective, they must be internalized and degraded, limiting potential targets to surface antigens that are trafficked to lysosomes. CD79a and CD79b comprise the hetrodimeric signaling component of the B-cell receptor, and are attractive targets for the use of ADCs because they are B-cell-specific, expressed in non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), and are trafficked to a lysosomal-like compartment as part of antigen presentation. We show here that the stable-linker ADCs anti-CD79b-MCC-DM1 and anti-CD79b-MC-MMAF are capable of target-dependent killing of nonHodgkin lymphoma cell lines in vitro. Further, these 2 ADCs are equally effective as low doses in xenograft models of follicular, mantle cell, and Burkitt lymphomas, even though several of these cell lines express relatively low levels of CD79b in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that anti-CD79b ADCs were more effective than anti-CD79a ADCs and that, as hypothesized, anti-CD79b antibodies downregulated surface B-cell receptor and were trafficked to the lysosomal-like major histocompatibility complex class II-positive compartment MIIC. These results suggest that anti-CD79b-MCC-DM1 and anti-CD79b-MC-MMAF are promising therapeutics for the treatment of NHL.

Authors : Polson Andrew G, Yu Shang-Fan, Elkins Kristi, Zheng Bing, Clark Suzanna, Ingle Gladys S, Slaga Dionysos S, Giere Lynne, Du Changchun, Tan Christine, Hongo Jo-Anne, Gogineni Alvin, Cole Mary J, Vandlen Richard, Stephan Jean-Philippe, Young Judy, Chang Wesley, Scales Suzie J, Ross Sarajane, Eaton Dan, Ebens Allen,