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(1) [TOP]

Pubmed ID :
Publication Date : //

Authors :

(2) C5a receptor (CD88) blockade protects against MPO-ANCA GN.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :24179165
Publication Date : //
Necrotizing and crescentic GN (NCGN) with a paucity of glomerular immunoglobulin deposits is associated with ANCA. The most common ANCA target antigens are myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3. In a manner that requires activation of the alternative complement pathway, passive transfer of antibodies to mouse MPO (anti-MPO) induces a mouse model of ANCA NCGN that closely mimics human disease. Here, we confirm the importance of C5aR/CD88 in the mediation of anti-MPO-induced NCGN and report that C6 is not required. We further demonstrate that deficiency of C5a-like receptor (C5L2) has the reverse effect of C5aR/CD88 deficiency and results in more severe disease, indicating that C5aR/CD88 engagement enhances inflammation and C5L2 engagement suppresses inflammation. Oral administration of CCX168, a small molecule antagonist of human C5aR/CD88, ameliorated anti-MPO-induced NCGN in mice expressing human C5aR/CD88. These observations suggest that blockade of C5aR/CD88 might have therapeutic benefit in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis and GN.

Authors : Xiao Hong, Dairaghi Daniel J, Powers Jay P, Ertl Linda S, Baumgart Trageen, Wang Yu, Seitz Lisa C, Penfold Mark E T, Gan Lin, Hu Peiqi, Lu Bao, Gerard Norma P, Gerard Craig, Schall Thomas J, Jaen Juan C, Falk Ronald J, Jennette J Charles,

(3) A novel C5a-derived immunobiotic peptide reduces Streptococcus agalactiae colonization through targeted bacterial killing.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23979760
Publication Date : //
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium that colonizes the cervicovaginal tract in approximately 25% of healthy women. Although colonization is asymptomatic, GBS can be vertically transmitted to newborns peripartum, causing severe disease such as pneumonia and meningitis. Current prophylaxis, consisting of late gestation screening and intrapartum antibiotics, has failed to completely prevent transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in the United States. Lack of an effective vaccine and emerging antibiotic resistance necessitate exploring novel therapeutic strategies. We have employed a host-directed immunomodulatory therapy using a novel peptide, known as EP67, derived from the C-terminal region of human complement component C5a. Previously, we have demonstrated in vivo that EP67 engagement of the C5a receptor (CD88) effectively limits staphylococcal infection by promoting cytokine release and neutrophil infiltration. Here, using our established mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization, we observed that EP67 treatment results in rapid clearance of GBS from the murine vagina. However, this was not dependent on functional neutrophil recruitment or CD88 signaling, as EP67 treatment reduced the vaginal bacterial load in mice lacking CD88 or the major neutrophil receptor CXCr2. Interestingly, we found that EP67 inhibits GBS growth in vitro and in vivo and that antibacterial activity was specific to Streptococcus species. Our work establishes that EP67-mediated clearance of GBS is likely due to direct bacterial killing rather than to enhanced immune stimulation. We conclude that EP67 may have potential as a therapeutic to control GBS vaginal colonization.

Authors : Cavaco Courtney K, Patras Kathryn A, Zlamal Jaime E, Thoman Marilyn L, Morgan Edward L, Sanderson Sam D, Doran Kelly S,

(4) A novel C5a-neutralizing mirror-image (l-)aptamer prevents organ failure and improves survival in experimental sepsis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23887360
Publication Date : //
Complement factor C5a is a potent proinflammatory mediator that contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory diseases. Here, we describe the discovery of NOX-D20, a PEGylated biostable mirror-image mixed (l-)RNA/DNA aptamer (Spiegelmer) that binds to mouse and human C5a with picomolar affinity. In vitro, NOX-D20 inhibited C5a-induced chemotaxis of a CD88-expressing cell line and efficiently antagonized the activation of primary human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) by C5a. Binding of NOX-D20 to the C5a moiety of human C5 did not interfere with the formation of the terminal membrane attack complex (MAC). In sepsis, for which a specific interventional therapy is currently lacking, complement activation and elevated levels of C5a are suggested to contribute to multiorgan failure and mortality. In the model of polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), NOX-D20 attenuated inflammation and organ damage, prevented the breakdown of the vascular endothelial barrier, and improved survival. Our study suggests NOX-D20 as a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of sepsis.

Authors : Hoehlig Kai, Maasch Christian, Shushakova Nelli, Buchner Klaus, Huber-Lang Markus, Purschke Werner G, Vater Axel, Klussmann Sven,

(5) A pro-inflammatory role of C5L2 in C5a-primed neutrophils for ANCA-induced activation.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23785491
Publication Date : //
The complement system is crucial for the development of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). In particular, C5a and its receptor on neutrophils, CD88, play a central role. The functional role of the second receptor of C5a, C5L2, remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated the role of C5L2 in C5a-primed neutrophils for ANCA-induced activation.

Authors : Hao Jian, Wang Chen, Yuan Jun, Chen Min, Zhao Ming-Hui,

(6) Murine visceral leishmaniasis: IgM and polyclonal B-cell activation lead to disease exacerbation.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :20213734
Publication Date : //
In visceral leishmaniasis, the draining LN (DLN) is the initial site for colonization and establishment of infection after intradermal transmission by the sand fly vector; however, little is known about the developing immune response within this site. Using an intradermal infection model, which allows for parasite visceralization, we have examined the ongoing immune responses in the DLN of BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania infantum. Although not unexpected, at early times post-infection there is a marked B-cell expansion in the DLN, which persists throughout infection. However, the characteristics of this response were of interest; as early as day 7 post-infection, polyclonal antibodies (TNP, OVA, chromatin) were observed and the levels appeared comparable to the specific anti-leishmania response. Although B-cell-deficient JhD BALB/c mice are relatively resistant to infection, neither B-cell-derived IL-10 nor B-cell antigen presentation appear to be primarily responsible for the elevated parasitemia. However, passive transfer and reconstitution of JhD BALB/c with secretory immunoglobulins, (IgM or IgG; specific or non-specific immune complexes) results in increased susceptibility to L. infantum infection. Further, JhD BALB/c mice transgenetically reconstituted to secrete IgM demonstrated exacerbated disease in comparison to WT BALB/c mice as early as 2 days post-infection. Evidence suggests that complement activation (generation of C5a) and signaling via the C5a receptor (CD88) is related to the disease exacerbation caused by IgM rather than cytokine levels (IL-10 or IFN-gamma). Overall these studies indicate that polyclonal B-cell activation, which is known to be associated with human visceral leishmaniasis, is an early and intrinsic characteristic of disease and may represent a target for therapeutic intervention.

Authors : Deak Eszter, Jayakumar Asha, Cho Ka Wing, Goldsmith-Pestana Karen, Dondji Blaise, Lambris John D, McMahon-Pratt Diane,

(7) Fifth complement cascade protein (C5) cleavage fragments disrupt the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis: further evidence that innate immunity orchestrates the mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :20153802
Publication Date : //
Having previously demonstrated that the complement system modulates mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) in mice, we investigated the involvement of C5 cleavage fragments (C5a/(desArg)C5a) in human HSPC mobilization.

Authors : Jalili Ali, Shirvaikar Neeta, Marquez-Curtis Leah, Qiu Yuanyuan, Korol Chris, Lee HakMo, Turner A Robert, Ratajczak Mariusz Z, Janowska-Wieczorek Anna,

(8) Analysis of C5a receptor by monoclonal antibody.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :7665898
Publication Date : //
We prepared a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb), termed 4C8, to the human C5a receptor (C5aR, CD88) by fusing spleen cells from mice immunized with mouse Ltk- cells transfected with cDNA of human C5aR (Ltk-/C5aR) to the mouse myeloma cell line P3U1. This mAb belonging to the IgM kappa subclass, detected a 43 kDa band on cell lysates of Ltk-/C5aR by immunoblotting analysis. Flow cytometry revealed that 4C8 specifically bound to Ltk-/C5aR, suggesting that this antibody is specific for C5aR. Furthermore, 4C8 was found to partially block both intracellular Ca2+ increase in PMN stimulated by C5a and 125I-C5a binding to C5aR on PMN. When cross-linked by anti-mouse IgM, 4C8 completely inhibited the binding of C5a to C5aR on PMN and Ltk-/C5aR. Therefore, it seems likely that this mAb does not recognize the C5aR active site but sterically inhibits the binding of C5a to its receptor. Using this mAb, we detected a 50 kDa band of C5aR on cell lysates of PMN, monocytes and platelets by immunoblotting. C5aR was expressed on PMN and monocytes as determined by flow cytometry, whereas it was not demonstrated on the surface of platelets. Based on these results, this mAb should be useful for analysis of C5aR expression in various immunological conditions and inflammatory diseases.

Authors : Watanabe H, Kuraya M, Kasukawa R, Yanagisawa H, Yanagisawa M, Fujita T,