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(1) A GMCSF-Neuroantigen Tolerogenic Vaccine Elicits Systemic Lymphocytosis of CD4 CD25 FOXP3 Regulatory T Cells in Myelin-Specific TCR Transgenic Mice Contingent Upon Low-Efficiency T Cell Antigen Receptor Recognition.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30687323
Publication Date : //
Previous studies showed that single-chain fusion proteins comprised of GM-CSF and major encephalitogenic peptides of myelin, when injected subcutaneously in saline, were potent tolerogenic vaccines that suppressed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and mice. These tolerogenic vaccines exhibited dominant suppressive activity in inflammatory environments even when emulsified in Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). The current study provides evidence that the mechanism of tolerance was dependent upon vaccine-induced regulatory CD25 T cells (Tregs), because treatment of mice with the Treg-depleting anti-CD25 mAb PC61 reversed tolerance. To assess tolerogenic mechanisms, we focused on 2D2-FIG mice, which have a transgenic T cell repertoire that recognizes myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide MOG35-55 as a low-affinity ligand and the neurofilament medium peptide NFM13-37 as a high-affinity ligand. Notably, a single subcutaneous vaccination of GMCSF-MOG in saline elicited a major population of FOXP3 Tregs that appeared within 3 days, was sustained over several weeks, expressed canonical Treg markers, and was present systemically at high frequencies in the blood, spleen, and lymph nodes. Subcutaneous and intravenous injections of GMCSF-MOG were equally effective for induction of FOXP3 Tregs. Repeated booster vaccinations with GMCSF-MOG elicited FOXP3 expression in over 40% of all circulating T cells. Covalent linkage of GM-CSF with MOG35-55 was required for Treg induction whereas vaccination with GM-CSF and MOG35-55 as separate molecules lacked Treg-inductive activity. GMCSF-MOG elicited high levels of Tregs even when administered in immunogenic adjuvants such as CFA or Alum. Conversely, incorporation of GM-CSF and MOG35-55 as separate molecules in CFA did not support Treg induction. The ability of the vaccine to induce Tregs was dependent upon the efficiency of T cell antigen recognition, because vaccination of 2D2-FIG or OTII-FIG mice with the high-affinity ligands GMCSF-NFM or GMCSF-OVA (Ovalbumin323-339), respectively, did not elicit Tregs. Comparison of 2D2-FIG and 2D2-FIG- strains revealed that GMCSF-MOG may predominantly drive Treg expansion because the kinetics of vaccine-induced Treg emergence was a function of pre-existing Treg levels. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the antigenic domain of the GMCSF-NAg tolerogenic vaccine is critical in setting the balance between regulatory and conventional T cell responses in both quiescent and inflammatory environments.

Authors : Moorman Cody D, Curtis Alan D, Bastian Alexander G, Elliott Sarah E, Mannie Mark D,

(2) Different Outcomes of Experimental Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Diverse Mouse Strains, Wistar Rats, and Rabbits.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30577433
Publication Date : //
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but autochthonous cases of zoonotic genotype 3 (HEV-3) infection also occur in industrialized countries. In contrast to swine, rats, and rabbits, natural HEV infections in mice have not yet been demonstrated. The pig represents a well-established large animal model for HEV-3 infection, but a suitable small animal model mimicking natural HEV-3 infection is currently missing. Therefore, we experimentally inoculated C57BL/6 mice (wild-type, IFNAR, CD4, CD8) and BALB/c nude (nu/nu) mice, Wistar rats, and European rabbits with a wild boar-derived HEV-3 strain and monitored virus replication and shedding, as well as humoral immune responses. HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies were detected in one and two out of eight of the rats and all rabbits inoculated, respectively, but not in any of the mouse strains tested. Remarkably, immunosuppressive dexamethasone treatment of rats did not enhance their susceptibility to HEV infection. In rabbits, immunization with recombinant HEV-3 and ratHEV capsid proteins induced protection against HEV-3 challenge. In conclusion, the rabbit model for HEV-3 infection may serve as a suitable alternative to the non-human primate and swine models, and as an appropriate basis for vaccine evaluation studies.

Authors : Schlosser Josephine, Dähnert Lisa, Dremsek Paul, Tauscher Kerstin, Fast Christine, Ziegler Ute, Gröner Albrecht, Ulrich Rainer G, Groschup Martin H, Eiden Martin,

(3) T Helper Cell Subsets in Experimental Lung Allograft Rejection.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30502290
Publication Date : //
Human lung transplantation has evolved to an established treatment for pulmonary diseases in their end stages; however, the long-term outcome is worse when compared to all other solid transplantable organs. The major reason for this unfavorable outcome is rejection, either in its acute or chronic form, the latter termed as chronic lung allograft dysfunction.

Authors : Yamada Yoshito, Brüstle Karina, Jungraithmayr Wolfgang,

(4) PCC0208009 enhances the anti-tumor effects of temozolomide through direct inhibition and transcriptional regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in glioma models.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29993291
Publication Date : //
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which is highly expressed in human glioblastoma and involved in tumor immune escape and resistance to chemotherapy, is clinically correlated with tumor progression and poor clinical outcomes, and is a promising therapeutic target for glioblastoma. IDO inhibitors are marginally efficacious as single-agents; therefore, combination with other therapies holds promise for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects and mechanisms of the IDO inhibitor PCC0208009 in combination with temozolomide. The effects of PCC0208009 on IDO activity inhibition, and mRNA and protein expression in HeLa cells were observed. In the mouse glioma GL261 heterotopic model, the effects of PCC0208009 on l-kynurenine/tryptophan (Kyn/Trp), tumor growth, flow cytometry for T cells within tumors, and immunohistochemistry for IDO and Ki67 were examined. In the rat glioma C6 orthotopic model, animal survival, flow cytometry for T cells within tumors, and immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and IDO were examined. The results show that PCC0208009 is a highly effective IDO inhibitor, not only directly inhibiting IDO activity but also participating in the gene regulation of IDO expression at the transcription and translation levels. PCC0208009 significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effects of temozolomide in GL261 and C6 models, by increasing the percentages of CD3, CD4, and CD8 T cells within tumors and suppressing tumor proliferation. These findings indicate that PCC0208009 can potentiate the anti-tumor efficacy of temozolomide and suggest that combination of IDO inhibitor-based immunotherapy with chemotherapy is a potential strategy for brain tumor treatment.

Authors : Sun Shanyue, Du Guangying, Xue Jiang, Ma Jinbo, Ge Minmin, Wang Hongbo, Tian Jingwei,

(5) OX40 ligand is inhibitory during the effector phase of crescentic glomerulonephritis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29939347
Publication Date : //
The functional relevance of OX40 ligand (OX40L) in the effector phase of crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) is unknown. These studies defined the role of endogenous OX40L during the effector stage of murine crescentic GN.

Authors : Odobasic Dragana, Ruth Amanda J, Oudin Virginie, Kitching A Richard, Holdsworth Stephen R,

(6) Squid type II collagen as a novel biomaterial: Isolation, characterization, immunogenicity and relieving effect on degenerative osteoarthritis via inhibiting STAT1 signaling in pro-inflammatory macrophages.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29752100
Publication Date : //
Collagen from marine organisms has a broad prospect in biomedical field, yet the knowledge on marine-derived type II collagen is rare. Herein, a novel type II collagen was successfully isolated from squid cartilage for the first time. After being characterized, the immunogenicity of squid type II collagen (SCII) was evaluated and compared with that of bovine type II collagen (BCII). Then investigations were further conducted for the impacts of SCII on pro-inflammatory macrophages and macrophage chemotaxis. The degenerative osteoarthritis (OA) -relieving effects of SCII were explored using OA rat model in vivo. Our results demonstrated that the isolated SCII maintained triple-superhelical structure of native collagen with high purity. Different from BCII, SCII presented no immunogenicity since it neither induced abnormal proliferation of lymphocytes in vitro nor changed the basic levels of IgM, IgG, anti-type II collagen IgG and CD4/CD8 lymphocytes ratio in vivo. Additionally, SCII also exerted prominent anti-inflammatory effects. SCII significantly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by enhancing the activity of TCPTP and subsequently prompting the dephosphorylation of p-STAT1 in pro-inflammatory macrophages. Besides, it indirectly prevented hypertrophic changes of chondrocytes, and markedly impeded chemotaxis of macrophages. Moreover, inflammation condition in OA rats was significantly alleviated under treatment with SCII. These data suggested that the newly developed SCII could not only avoid the immunogenic risks of collagen derived from terrestrial animals, but more importantly, provide new choice for the control and treatment of OA.

Authors : Dai Meilu, Liu Xin, Wang Nanping, Sun Jiao,

(7) DOX/IL-2/IFN-γ co-loaded thermo-sensitive polypeptide hydrogel for efficient melanoma treatment.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29744449
Publication Date : //
Melanoma has been a serious threat to the human health; however, effective therapeutic methods of this cancer are still limited. Combined local therapy is a crucial approach for achieving a superior anti-tumor efficacy. In this paper, a chemo-immunotherapy system of DOX, IL-2 and IFN-γ based on poly(γ-ethyl-L-glutamate)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(γ-ethyl-L-glutamate) (PELG-PEG-PELG) hydrogel was developed for local treatment of melanoma xenograft. The drug release process of this system exhibited a short term of burst release (the first 3 days), followed by a long-term sustained release (the following 26 days). The hydrogel degraded completely within 3 weeks without obvious inflammatory responses in the subcutaneous layer of rats, showing a good biodegradability and biocompatibility. The DOX/IL-2/IFN-γ co-loaded hydrogel also showed enhanced anti-tumor effect against B16F10 cells , through increasing the ratio of cell apoptosis and G2/S phage cycle arrest. Moreover, the combined strategy presented improved therapy efficacy against B16F10 melanoma xenograft without obvious systemic side effects in a nude mice model, which was likely related to both the enhanced tumor cell apoptosis and the increased proliferation of the CD3/CD4 T-lymphocytes and CD3/CD8 T-lymphocytes. Overall, the strategy of localized co-delivery of DOX/IL-2/IFN-γ using the polypeptide hydrogel provided a promising approach for efficient melanoma therapy.

Authors : Lv Qiang, He Chaoliang, Quan Fenli, Yu Shuangjiang, Chen Xuesi,

(8) A novel PADRE-Kv1.3 vaccine effectively induces therapeutic antibodies and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29496642
Publication Date : //
Previous studies have confirmed that selective blockade of Kv1.3 channels could modulate the activities of pathogenic T cells and microglia/macrophages, which play key roles in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this study, we designed an anti-Kv1.3 vaccine (PADRE-Kv1.3) to explore its protective role in EAE rat models. When the vaccine was applied in EAE rats, clinical scores and several staining techniques were used to evaluate the severity of the disease. T cell subtypes and related cytokines, as well as microglia/macrophage activation were assayed through flow cytometry, qRT-PCR or immunofluorescence staining, respectively. We herein showed that rats and mice developed high titers of anti-Kv1.3 antibodies and appeared no abnormal manifestations after the PADRE-Kv1.3 vaccine treatment. In EAE models, the vaccine treatment effectively alleviated the clinical severity and lessened pathological damages in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, we found the vaccine significantly decreased the number of pathogenic T cells (Th17 and IFN-γ-producing T cells) and the production of related pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-17A, IFN-γ and IL-1β), but increased the number of protective T subsets (CD4IL-10 T cells and Treg cells) in the spleen or CNS. Moreover, the infiltration of microglia/macrophages significantly reduced and these cells shifted toward anti-inflammatory M2 subtype in the CNS after the vaccine treatment. Thus, we demonstrated that the PADRE-Kv1.3 vaccine could induce therapeutic anti-Kv1.3 antibodies and ameliorate EAE in rats effectively and safely, which provides a new field of vision for the protection and therapy of multiple sclerosis.

Authors : Fan Cheng, Long Rui, You Ya, Wang Jue, Yang Xiaofang, Huang Shiyuan, Sheng Yuling, Peng Xu, Liu Hui, Wang Zhaohui, Liu Kun,

(9) Amelioration of ongoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with fluoxetine.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29153612
Publication Date : //
In patients with multiple sclerosis, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, resulted in less acute disease activity. We tested the immune modulating effects of fluoxetine in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, i.e. experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We show that fluoxetine delayed the onset of disease and reduced clinical paralysis in mice with established disease. Fluoxetine had abrogating effects on proliferation of immune cells and inflammatory cytokine production by both antigen-presenting cells and T cells. Specifically, in CD T cells, fluoxetine increased Fas-induced apoptosis. We conclude that fluoxetine possesses immune-modulating effects resulting in the amelioration of symptoms in EAE.

Authors : Bhat Roopa, Mahapatra Sidharth, Axtell Robert C, Steinman Lawrence,

(10) A Salmonella typhimurium ghost vaccine induces cytokine expression in vitro and immune responses in vivo and protects rats against homologous and heterologous challenges.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28961267
Publication Date : //
Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium are important food-borne bacterial pathogens, which are responsible for diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans and animals. In this study, S. typhimurium bacterial ghost (STG) was generated based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Experimental studies performed using in vitro and in vivo experimental model systems to characterize effects of STG as a vaccine candidate. When compared with murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) exposed to PBS buffer (98.1%), the macrophages exposed to formalin-killed inactivated cells (FKC), live wild-type bacterial cells and NaOH-induced STG at 1 × 108 CFU/mL showed 85.6%, 66.5% and 84.6% cell viability, respectively. It suggests that STG significantly reduces the cytotoxic effect of wild-type bacterial cells. Furthermore, STG is an excellent inducer for mRNAs of pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β) and factor (iNOS), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) and dual activities (IL-6) in the stimulated macrophage cells. In vivo, STG vaccine induced humoral and cellular immune responses and protection against homologous and heterologous challenges in rats. Furthermore, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of STG vaccine were compared with those of FKC and non-vaccinated PBS control groups. The vaccinated rats from STG group exhibited higher levels of serum IgG antibody responses, serum bactericidal antibodies, and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell populations than those of the FKC and PBS control groups. Most importantly, after challenge with homologous and heterologous strains, the bacterial loads in the STG group were markedly lower than the FKC and PBS control groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the STG vaccine induces protective immunity against homologous and heterologous challenges.

Authors : Vinod Nagarajan, Noh Han Byul, Oh Sung, Ji Seongmi, Park Hyun Jung, Lee Ki-Sung, Kim Sei Chang, Park Han-Oh, Yang Joo-Sung, Choi Chang Won,