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(1) A GMCSF-Neuroantigen Tolerogenic Vaccine Elicits Systemic Lymphocytosis of CD4 CD25 FOXP3 Regulatory T Cells in Myelin-Specific TCR Transgenic Mice Contingent Upon Low-Efficiency T Cell Antigen Receptor Recognition.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30687323
Publication Date : //
Previous studies showed that single-chain fusion proteins comprised of GM-CSF and major encephalitogenic peptides of myelin, when injected subcutaneously in saline, were potent tolerogenic vaccines that suppressed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and mice. These tolerogenic vaccines exhibited dominant suppressive activity in inflammatory environments even when emulsified in Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). The current study provides evidence that the mechanism of tolerance was dependent upon vaccine-induced regulatory CD25 T cells (Tregs), because treatment of mice with the Treg-depleting anti-CD25 mAb PC61 reversed tolerance. To assess tolerogenic mechanisms, we focused on 2D2-FIG mice, which have a transgenic T cell repertoire that recognizes myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide MOG35-55 as a low-affinity ligand and the neurofilament medium peptide NFM13-37 as a high-affinity ligand. Notably, a single subcutaneous vaccination of GMCSF-MOG in saline elicited a major population of FOXP3 Tregs that appeared within 3 days, was sustained over several weeks, expressed canonical Treg markers, and was present systemically at high frequencies in the blood, spleen, and lymph nodes. Subcutaneous and intravenous injections of GMCSF-MOG were equally effective for induction of FOXP3 Tregs. Repeated booster vaccinations with GMCSF-MOG elicited FOXP3 expression in over 40% of all circulating T cells. Covalent linkage of GM-CSF with MOG35-55 was required for Treg induction whereas vaccination with GM-CSF and MOG35-55 as separate molecules lacked Treg-inductive activity. GMCSF-MOG elicited high levels of Tregs even when administered in immunogenic adjuvants such as CFA or Alum. Conversely, incorporation of GM-CSF and MOG35-55 as separate molecules in CFA did not support Treg induction. The ability of the vaccine to induce Tregs was dependent upon the efficiency of T cell antigen recognition, because vaccination of 2D2-FIG or OTII-FIG mice with the high-affinity ligands GMCSF-NFM or GMCSF-OVA (Ovalbumin323-339), respectively, did not elicit Tregs. Comparison of 2D2-FIG and 2D2-FIG- strains revealed that GMCSF-MOG may predominantly drive Treg expansion because the kinetics of vaccine-induced Treg emergence was a function of pre-existing Treg levels. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the antigenic domain of the GMCSF-NAg tolerogenic vaccine is critical in setting the balance between regulatory and conventional T cell responses in both quiescent and inflammatory environments.

Authors : Moorman Cody D, Curtis Alan D, Bastian Alexander G, Elliott Sarah E, Mannie Mark D,

(2) Oxcarbazepine free or loaded PLGA nanoparticles as effective intranasal approach to control epileptic seizures in rodents.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30399400
Publication Date : //
The brain as a target for drug delivery is a challenge in pharmaceutical research. Among the several proposed strategies, the intranasal route represents a good strategy to deliver drugs to the brain. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential use of oxcarbazepine (OXC) to enhance brain targeting efficiency after intranasal (IN) administration. As well as attempting to use as low a dose as possible to obtain therapeutic effect. Our results showed that, after IN administrations, the dose of OXC that was effective in controlling epileptic seizures was 0.5 mg/kg (1 dose, every 20 min for 1 h) in rodents, confirmed by Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) bioavailability. With the aim of reducing the number of administrations, sustaining drug release and increasing brain targeting, OXC was loaded into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). The selected nanoformulation for in vivo studies was obtained re-suspending the freeze-dried and cryo-protected OXC loaded PLGA NPs. The translocation of 1-1'-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine Iodide loaded PLGA NPs, from nose to the brain, was confirmed by Fluorescence Molecular Tomography, which also evidenced an accumulation of NPs in the brain after repeated IN administrations. IN administrations of OXC loaded PLGA NPs reduced the number of administrations to 1 over 24 h compared to the free drug thus controlling seizures in rats. Immunohistochemical evaluations (anti-neurofilament, anti-beta tubulin, and anti-caspase3) demonstrated a neuroprotective effect of OXC PLGA NPs after 16 days of treatment. These encouraging results confirmed the possibility of developing a novel non-invasive nose to brain delivery system of OXC for the treatment of epilepsy.

Authors : Musumeci Teresa, Serapide Maria Francesca, Pellitteri Rosalia, Dalpiaz Alessandro, Ferraro Luca, Dal Magro Roberta, Bonaccorso Angela, Carbone Claudia, Veiga Francisco, Sancini Giulio, Puglisi Giovanni,

(3) The pathogenic relevance of α-integrin in Guillain-Barré syndrome.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27460017
Publication Date : //
The molecular determinants and mechanisms involved in leukocyte trafficking across the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) in the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome are incompletely understood. Prior work using a flow-dependent in vitro human BNB model demonstrated a crucial role for α-integrin (CD11b)-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 interactions in AIDP patient leukocyte trafficking. The aim of this study is to directly investigate the biological relevance of CD11b in AIDP pathogenesis. Immunohistochemistry was performed on three AIDP patient sural nerve biopsies to evaluate endoneurial leukocyte CD11b expression. A severe murine experimental autoimmune neuritis (sm-EAN) model was utilized to determine the functional role of CD11b in leukocyte trafficking in vivo and determine its effect on neurobehavioral measures of disease severity, electrophysiological assessments of axonal integrity and myelination and histopathological measures of peripheral nerve inflammatory demyelination. Time-lapse video microscopy and electron microscopy were employed to observe structural alterations at the BNB during AIDP patient leukocyte trafficking in vitro and in situ, respectively. Large clusters of endoneurial CD11b+ leukocytes associated with demyelinating axons were observed in AIDP patient sural nerves. Leukocyte CD11b expression was upregulated during sm-EAN. 5 mg/kg of a function-neutralizing monoclonal rat anti-mouse CD11b antibody administered after sm-EAN disease onset significantly ameliorated disease severity, as well as electrophysiological and histopathological parameters of inflammatory demyelination compared to vehicle- and isotype antibody-treated mice. Consistent with in vitro observations of leukocyte trafficking at the BNB, electron micrographs of AIDP patient sural nerves demonstrated intact electron-dense endoneurial microvascular intercellular junctions during paracellular mononuclear leukocyte transmigration. Our data support a crucial pathogenic role of CD11b in AIDP leukocyte trafficking, providing a potential therapeutic target for demyelinating variants of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

Authors : Dong Chaoling, Palladino Steven P, Helton Eric Scott, Ubogu Eroboghene E,

(4) Differential cavitation, angiogenesis and wound-healing responses in injured mouse and rat spinal cords.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :24929066
Publication Date : //
The vascular disruption, blood vessel loss and cavitation that occur at spinal cord injury (SCI) epicenters in mice and rats are different, but few studies have compared the acute SCI response in the two species. This is of interest since key elements of the rat SCI response are shared with humans. In this study, we investigated acute SCI responses and characterized changes in pro- and anti-angiogenic factors and matrix deposition in both species. Cavitation was absent in mouse but the area of the lesion site was 21- and 27-fold larger at 8 and 15 days post-lesion (dpl), respectively, in the rat compared to intact control. The absence of wound cavitation in the mouse was correlated with increased levels of immunoreactive pro-angiogenic, pro-matrix and pro-wound-healing factors, e.g. laminin, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) within the wound, which were 6.0-, 2.9-, and 2.8-fold, respectively, higher in the mouse compared to rats at 8 dpl. Increased axonal sparing was observed after dorsal column (DC) injury, detected by higher levels of neurofilament 200 (NF200) immunoreactivity in the dorsal column of mice compared to rats at both T7 and T9 spinal segments. Despite similar post SCI deficits in plantar heat tests at 2h after injury (1.4- and 1.6-fold lower than control mice and rats, respectively), by 7 days the magnitude of these responses were comparable to sham-treated controls in both species, while no post-SCI changes in Von Frey hair filament test response were observed in either species. We conclude that the more robust angiogenesis/wound-healing response in the mouse attenuates post-injury wound cavitation. Although the spinal cord functions that were monitored post-injury were similarly affected in both species, we suggest that the quality of the angiogenesis/wound-healing response together with the diminished lesion size seen after mouse SCI may protect against secondary axon damage and create an environment more conducive to axon sprouting/regeneration. These results suggest the potential therapeutic utility of manipulating the angiogenic response after human SCI.

Authors : Surey S, Berry M, Logan A, Bicknell R, Ahmed Z,

(5) Correlating habenular subnuclei in rat and mouse by using topographic, morphological, and cytochemical criteria.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :24478034
Publication Date : //
The mammalian habenulae consist of medial (MHb) and lateral (LHb) nuclear complexes. Especially the LHb has received much interest because it has been recognized as the potential center of an "anti-reward system." Subnuclear organization and connectivity of the LHb are well known. In contrast, criteria to classify habenular neurons into distinct groups with potentially different biological functions are missing, most likely as a result of the lack of appropriate marker proteins. Actually, a huge amount of data concerning the localization of more than 20,000 mouse protein genes is provided in the Allen Brain Atlas. Unfortunately, the immediate use of this information is prohibited by the fact that the subnuclear organization of the habenular complexes in mouse is not known so far. The present report, therefore, uses topographic, structural, and cytochemical information from the rat to recognize corresponding areas within the mouse habenulae. Taking advantage of the fact that the Klüver-Barrera technique allows simultaneous observation of neuronal cell bodies and myelinated fibers, we were able to correlate subnuclear areas in the mouse habenula to subnuclei, which had been rigorously identified by several criteria in the rat. Our data suggest that the topographic localization of habenular subnuclei is rather similar between mouse and rat and that they may be homologous in these two species. Consequently, our data may allow using the Allen Brain Atlas as a source of basal information, which should be helpful to select candidate molecular markers for functionally different neurons in the mouse and potentially in higher mammalian species.

Authors : Wagner Franziska, Stroh Thomas, Veh Rüdiger W,

(6) Immunohistological demonstration of CaV3.2 T-type voltage-gated calcium channel expression in soma of dorsal root ganglion neurons and peripheral axons of rat and mouse.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23867767
Publication Date : //
Previous behavioral studies have revealed that CaV3.2 T-type calcium channels support peripheral nociceptive transmission and electrophysiological studies have established the presence of T-currents in putative nociceptive sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG). To date, however, the localization pattern of this key nociceptive channel in the soma and peripheral axons of these cells has not been demonstrated due to lack of isoform-selective anti-CaV3.2 antibodies. In the present study a new polyclonal CaV3.2 antibody is used to localize CaV3.2 expression in rodent DRG neurons using different staining techniques including confocal and electron microscopy (EM). Confocal microscopy of both acutely dissociated cells and short-term cultures demonstrated strong immunofluorescence of anti-CaV3.2 antibody that was largely confined to smaller diameter DRG neurons where it co-localized with established immuno-markers of unmyelinated nociceptors, such as, CGRP, IB4 and peripherin. In contrast, a smaller proportion of these CaV3.2-labeled DRG cells also co-expressed neurofilament 200 (NF200), a marker of myelinated sensory neurons. In the rat sciatic nerve preparation, confocal microscopy demonstrated anti-CaV3.2 immunofluorescence which was co-localized with both peripherin and NF200. Further, EM revealed immuno-gold labeling of CaV3.2 preferentially in association with unmyelinated sensory fibers from mouse sciatic nerve. Finally, we demonstrated the expression of CaV3.2 channels in peripheral nerve endings of mouse hindpaw skin as shown by co-localization with Mrgpd-GFP-positive fibers. The CaV3.2 expression within the soma and peripheral axons of nociceptive sensory neurons further demonstrates the importance of this channel in peripheral pain transmission.

Authors : Rose K E, Lunardi N, Boscolo A, Dong X, Erisir A, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Todorovic S M,

(7) A novel PARP inhibitor L-2286 in a rat model of impact acceleration head injury: an immunohistochemical and behavioral study.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :20480019
Publication Date : //
We examined the neuro/axono-protective potential of a novel poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor L-2286 in a rat impact acceleration brain injury model. Male Wistar rats (n = 70) weighing 300-350 grams were used to determine the most effective intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) dose of L-2286 administered 30 min after injury, and to test the neuroprotective effect at two time points (immediately, and 30 min after injury). The neuroprotective effect of L-2286 was tested using immunohistochemical (amyloid precursor protein and mid-sized mouse anti-neurofilament clone RMO-14.9 antibody) and behavioral tests (beam-balance, open-field and elevated plus maze). At both time-points, a 100 microg/rat dose of i.c.v. L-2286 significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the density of damaged axons in the corticospinal tract and medial longitudinal fascicle compared to controls. In the behavioral tests, treatment 30 min post-injury improved motor function, while the level of anxiety was reduced in both treatment protocols.

Authors : Kövesdi Erzsébet, Bukovics Péter, Besson Valérie, Nyirádi József, Lückl János, Pál József, Sümegi Balázs, Dóczi Tamás, Hernádi István, Büki András,

(8) Neuroprotection from diazinon-induced toxicity in differentiating murine N2a neuroblastoma cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :19596371
Publication Date : //
In previous work, the outgrowth of axon-like processes by differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells was shown to be inhibited by exposure to 10 microM diazinon. In the present work, N2a cells were induced to differentiate for 24 h in the presence and absence of 10 microM diazinon and 20% (v/v) conditioned medium derived from differentiating rat C6 glioma cells. Cells were then stained or lysed for morphological and biochemical analyses, respectively. The data showed that co-treatment with conditioned medium prevented the neurite inhibitory effect of diazinon. Furthermore, a significant recovery was also observed in the reduced levels of neurofilament heavy chain (NFH), heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) observed as a result of diazinon treatment in the absence of conditioned medium, as seen by densitometric analysis of Western blots of cell lysates probed with monoclonal antibodies N52, BRM-22 and GAP-7B10. By contrast, no significant change was noted in the reactivity of cell lysates with antibodies against alpha- and beta-tubulin under any condition tested. After pre-incubation with a polyclonal anti-glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) antibody, conditioned medium derived from rat C6 glioma cells lost its ability to protect N2a cells against the neurite inhibitory effects of diazinon. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that C6 conditioned medium protects N2a cells from the neurite inhibitory effects of diazinon by blocking molecular events leading to axon damage and that GDNF is implicated in these effects.

Authors : Harris Wayne, Sachana Magda, Flaskos John, Hargreaves Alan J,

(9) Nestin modulates glucocorticoid receptor function by cytoplasmic anchoring.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :19562035
Publication Date : //
Nestin is the characteristic intermediate filament (IF) protein of rapidly proliferating progenitor cells and regenerating tissue. Nestin copolymerizes with class III IF-proteins, mostly vimentin, into heteromeric filaments. Its expression is downregulated with differentiation. Here we show that a strong nestin expression in mouse embryo tissue coincides with a strong accumulation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a key regulator of growth and differentiation in embryonic development. Microscopic studies on cultured cells show an association of GR with IFs composed of vimentin and nestin. Cells lacking nestin, but expressing vimentin, or cells expressing vimentin, but lacking nestin accumulate GR in the nucleus. Completing these networks with an exogenous nestin, respectively an exogenous vimentin restores cytoplasmic anchoring of GR to the IF system. Thus, heteromeric filaments provide the basis for anchoring of GR. The reaction pattern with phospho-GR specific antibodies and the presence of the chaperone HSC70 suggest that specifically the unliganded receptor is anchored to the IF system. Ligand addition releases GR from IFs and shifts the receptor into the nucleus. Suppression of nestin by specific shRNA abolishes anchoring of GR, induces its accumulation in the nucleus and provokes an irreversible G1/S cell cycle arrest. Suppression of GR prior to that of nestin prevents entry into the arrest. The data give evidence that nestin/vimentin specific anchoring modulates growth suppression by GR. We hypothesize that expression of nestin is a major determinant in suppression of anti-proliferative activity of GR in undifferentiated tissue and facilitates activation of this growth control in a precise tissue and differentiation dependent manner.

Authors : Reimer Rudolph, Helmbold Heike, Szalay Beata, Hagel Christian, Hohenberg Heinrich, Deppert Wolfgang, Bohn Wolfgang,

(10) Dexamethasone-coated neural probes elicit attenuated inflammatory response and neuronal loss compared to uncoated neural probes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :17376408
Publication Date : //
Glial scar formation around implanted silicon neural probes compromises their ability to facilitate long-term recordings. One approach to modulate the tissue reaction around implanted probes in the brain is to develop probe coatings that locally release anti-inflammatory drugs. In this study, we developed a nitrocellulose-based coating for the local delivery of the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone (DEX). Silicon neural probes with and without nitrocellulose-DEX coatings were implanted into rat brains, and inflammatory response was evaluated 1 week and 4 weeks post implantation. DEX coatings significantly reduced the reactivity of microglia and macrophages 1 week post implantation as evidenced by ED1 immunostaining. CS56 staining demonstrated that DEX treatment significantly reduced chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) expression 1 week post implantation. Both at 1-week and at 4-week time points, GFAP staining for reactive astrocytes and neurofilament (NF) staining revealed that local DEX treatment significantly attenuated astroglial response and reduced neuronal loss in the vicinity of the probes. Weak ED1, neurocan, and NG2-positive signal was detected 4 weeks post implantation for both coated and uncoated probes, suggesting a stabilization of the inflammatory response over time in this implant model. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the nitrocellulose-DEX coating can effectively attenuate the inflammatory response to the implanted neural probes, and reduce neuronal loss in the vicinity of the coated probes. Thus anti-inflammatory probe coatings may represent a promising approach to attenuate astroglial scar and reduce neural loss around implanted neural probes.

Authors : Zhong Yinghui, Bellamkonda Ravi V,