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(1) Development and evaluation of in murine model, of an improved live-vaccine candidate against brucellosis from to Brucella melitensis vjbR deletion mutant.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30149131
Publication Date : //
Brucellosis is an infectious disease that brings enormous economic burdens for developing countries. The Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) M5-90 vaccine strain (M5-90) has been used on a large scale in China, but may cause abortions if given to pregnant goats or sheep subcutaneously during the late stages of gestation. Moreover, the vaccine M5-90 cannot differentiate natural from vaccinated infection. Therefore, a safer and more potent M5-90 vaccine is required. In this study, a vjbR mutant of M5-90 (M5-90ΔvjbR) was constructed and overcame these drawbacks. M5-90ΔvjbR strain showed reduced survival capability in murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and BALB/c mice and induced high protective immunity in mice. In addition, M5-90ΔvjbR induced an anti-Brucella-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response and stimulated the expression of gamma interferon (INF-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in vaccinated mice. Furthermore, M5-90ΔvjbR induced IgG response and stimulated the secretion of IFN-γ and IL-4 in immunized sheep. Moreover, the VjbR antigen allowed serological differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals. These results suggest that M5-90ΔvjbR is an ideal live attenuated and efficacious live vaccine candidate against B. melitensis 16 M infection.

Authors : Li Zhiqiang, Wang Shuli, Zhang Hui, Xi Li, Zhang Jinliang, Zhang Xiaogen, Zhou Qingfeng, Yi Jihai, Li Min, Zhang Weihua, Zhang Junbo,

(2) A phase I clinical trial demonstrates that nfP2X -targeted antibodies provide a novel, safe and tolerable topical therapy for basal cell carcinoma.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28150889
Publication Date : //
Expression of P2X , an ATP-gated calcium channel, increases cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness. A variant of P2X (termed nfP2X ), in which a normally hidden epitope (E200) is exposed for antibody binding, is observed in a variety of different cancers.

Authors : Gilbert S M, Gidley Baird A, Glazer S, Barden J A, Glazer A, Teh L C, King J,

(3) Characterization and vaccine potential of Fasciola gigantica saposin-like protein 1 (SAP-1).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28043381
Publication Date : //
The recombinant Fasciola gigantica Saposin-like protien-1 (rFgSAP-1) was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from NEJ cDNA, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and used for production of a polyclonal antibody in rabbits (anti-rFgSAP-1). By immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry, rabbit IgG anti-rFgSAP-1 reacted with rFgSAP-1 at a molecular weight 12kDa, but not with rFgSAP-2. The rFgSAP-1 reacted with antisera from mouse infected with F. gigantica metacercariae collected at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after infection. The FgSAP-1 protein was expressed at a high level in the caecal epithelium of metacercariae and NEJs. The vaccination was performed in Imprinting Control Region (ICR) mice (n=10) by subcutaneous injection with 50μg of rFgSAP-1 combined with Alum adjuvant. Two weeks after the second boost, mice were infected with 15 metacercariae per mouse by the oral route. The percents protection of rFgSAP-1 vaccine were estimated to be 73.2% and 74.3% when compared with non vaccinated-infected and adjuvant-infected controls, respectively. The levels of IgG1 and IgG2a specific to rFgSAP-1 in the immune sera, which are indicative of Th2 and Th1 immune responses, were inversely and significantly correlated with the numbers of worm recoveries. The rFgSAP-1-vaccinated mice showed significantly reduced levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and liver damage. These indicated that rFgSAP-1 has strong potential as a vaccine candidate against F. gigantica, whose efficacy will be studied further in large economic animals including cattle, sheep, and goat.

Authors : Kueakhai Pornanan, Changklungmoa Narin, Waseewiwat Pinkamon, Thanasinpaiboon Thanaporn, Cheukamud Werachon, Chaichanasak Pannigan, Sobhon Prasert,

(4) [Preparation,Identification,and Application of Monoclonal Antibody against Orf Virus 118 Protein].[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29963789
Publication Date : //
This study was designed to prepare a monoclonal antibody against Orf virus 118 protein and explore the biological properties of ORFV118 using this antibody. We constructed a recombinant plasmid pET33b-ORFV118 that contained a full-length ORFV118 gene. The plasmid was transformed into E.coli BL21,and the expression of ORFV118 was induced by isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside (IPTG).Prokaryotic ORFV118 was purified via Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and was subsequently used as an antigen to immunize mice. An anti-ORFV118 antibody was prepared using hybridoma technology. The titer and specificity of this antibody were tested by an indirect ELISA and Western blot/immunohistochemistry, respectively. We successfully obtained three antibody-secreting hybridomas,1A2,3B5,and 5D10.The titers of the three hybridomas were 1:10000,1:6400,and 1:8000.The monoclonal antibody (mAb),1A2 and the highest titer was selected for further research. The mAb 1A2,an IgG1 type antibody was bonded to its immunizing antigen, both the eukaryotic and natural ORFV118 with high specificity. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that the focal specific staining was restricted to the epidermal layer and subcutaneous tissue, which conformed to the characteristics of an ORFV infection. The mAb 1A2 recognized ORFV118with high specificity. Further study of mAb 1A2 will facilitate our understanding of ORFV118 and provide potentially novel methods for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of Orf.

Authors : Xiao Bin, Hao Wenbo, Du Zhenglun, Liao Xiaoqing, Luo Shuhong,

(5) The Brucella melitensis M5-90 phosphoglucomutase (PGM) mutant is attenuated and confers protection against wild-type challenge in BALB/c mice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :26925620
Publication Date : //
Brucellae are Gram-negative intracellular bacterial pathogens that infect humans and animals, bringing great economic burdens to developing countries. Live attenuated Brucella vaccines (strain M5-90 or others) are the most efficient means for prevention and control of animal brucellosis. However, these vaccines have several drawbacks, including residual virulence in animals, and difficulties in differentiating natural infection from vaccine immunization, which limit their application. A vaccine that can differentiate infection from immunization will have extensive applications. A Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) strain M5-90 pgm mutant (M5-90Δpgm) was constructed to overcome these drawbacks. M5-90Δpgm showed significantly reduced survival in embryonic trophoblast cells and in mice, and induced high protective immunity in BALB/c mice. Moreover, M5-90Δpgm elicited an anti-Brucella-specific immunoglobulin G response and induced the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2). In addition, M5-90Δpgm induced the secretion of IFN-γ in immunized sheep. Serum samples from sheep inoculated with M5-90Δpgm were negative by the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT). Furthermore, the PGM antigen allowed serological differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals. These results suggest that M5-90Δpgm is an ideal live attenuated vaccine candidate against B. melitensis 16 M and deserves further evaluation for vaccine development.

Authors : Zhang Yu, Li Tiansen, Zhang Jing, Li Zhiqiang, Zhang Yan, Wang Zhen, Feng Hanping, Wang Yuanzhi, Chen Chuangfu, Zhang Hui,

(6) IgG Suppresses Antibody Responses in Mice Lacking C1q, C3, Complement Receptors 1 and 2, or IgG Fc-Receptors.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :26619292
Publication Date : //
Antigen-specific IgG antibodies, passively administered to mice or humans together with large particulate antigens like erythrocytes, can completely suppress the antibody response against the antigen. This is used clinically in Rhesus prophylaxis, where administration of IgG anti-RhD prevents RhD-negative women from becoming immunized against RhD-positive fetal erythrocytes aquired transplacentally. The mechanisms by which IgG suppresses antibody responses are poorly understood. We have here addressed whether complement or Fc-receptors for IgG (FcγRs) are required for IgG-mediated suppression. IgG, specific for sheep red blood cells (SRBC), was administered to mice together with SRBC and the antibody responses analyzed. IgG was able to suppress early IgM- as well as longterm IgG-responses in wildtype mice equally well as in mice lacking FcγRIIB (FcγRIIB knockout mice) or FcγRI, III, and IV (FcRγ knockout mice). Moreover, IgG was able to suppress early IgM responses equally well in mice lacking C1q (C1qA knockout mice), C3 (C3 knockout mice), or complement receptors 1 and 2 (Cr2 knockout mice) as in wildtype mice. Owing to the previously described severely impaired IgG responses in the complement deficient mice, it was difficult to assess whether passively administered IgG further decreased their IgG response. In conclusion, Fc-receptor binding or complement-activation by IgG does not seem to be required for its ability to suppress antibody responses to xenogeneic erythrocytes.

Authors : Bergström Joakim J E, Heyman Birgitta,

(7) Severe Nephrotoxic Nephritis following Conditional and Kidney-Specific Knockdown of Stanniocalcin-1.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :26393521
Publication Date : //
Inflammation is the hallmark of nephrotoxic nephritis. Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1), a pro-survival factor, inhibits macrophages, stabilizes endothelial barrier function, and diminishes trans-endothelial migration of leukocytes; consistently, transgenic (Tg) overexpression of STC1 protects from nephrotoxic nephritis. Herein, we sought to determine the phenotype of nephrotoxic nephritis after conditional and kidney-specific knockdown of STC1.

Authors : Huang Luping, Lou Yahuan, Ju Huiming, Zhang Lin, Pan Jenny Szu-Chin, Ross April, Sun Yuxiang, Truong Luan D, Sheikh-Hamad David,

(8) Interleukin-21 receptor blockade inhibits secondary humoral responses and halts the progression of preestablished disease in the (NZB × NZW)F1 systemic lupus erythematosus model.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :26097207
Publication Date : //
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease that is driven in part by chronic B and T lymphocyte hyperresponsiveness to self antigens. A deficiency of interleukin-21 (IL-21) or IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) in mice dramatically reduces inflammation and B and T cell activation in models of autoimmunity, including SLE. However, whether IL-21 is essential for the maintenance and amplification of preestablished inflammation has not been widely examined in various animal models. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of novel mouse IL-21R neutralizing antibodies on recall responses to antigen challenge and on disease progression in the (NZB × NZW)F1 (NZB/NZW) mouse model of SLE.

Authors : Zhang Ming, Yu Gang, Chan Brian, Pearson Joshua T, Rathanaswami Palaniswami, Delaney John, Ching Lim Ai, Babcook John, Hsu Hailing, Gavin Marc A,

(9) Immunization of BALB/c mice with Brucella abortus 2308ΔwbkA confers protection against wild-type infection.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :26040616
Publication Date : //
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes animal and human diseases. Vaccination is a major measure for prevention of brucellosis, but it is currently not possible to distinguish vaccinated animals from those that have been naturally infected. Therefore, in this study, we constructed the Brucella (B.) abortus 2380 wbkA mutant (2308ΔwbkA) and evaluated its virulence. The survival of 2308ΔwbkA was attenuated in murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) and BALB/c mice, and it induced high protective immunity in mice. The wbkA mutant elicited an anti-Brucella-specific immunoglobulin G response and induced the secretion of gamma interferon. Antibodies to 2308ΔwbkA could be detected in sera from mice, implying the potential for use of this protein as a diagnostic antigen. The WbkA antigen would allow serological differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals. These results suggest that 2308ΔwbkA is a potential attenuated vaccine against 16M. This vaccine will be further evaluated in sheep.

Authors : Li Zhi-qiang, Gui Dan, Sun Zhi-hua, Zhang Jun-bo, Zhang Wen-zhi, Zhang Hui, Guo Fei, Chen Chuang-fu,

(10) A Brucella melitensis M5-90 wboA deletion strain is attenuated and enhances vaccine efficacy.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :25899866
Publication Date : //
Brucella spp. are Gram-negative intracellular pathogens of both humans and animals that cause great economic burdens in developing countries. Live attenuated vaccines are the most efficient means for the prevention and control of animal Brucellosis. However, Brucella vaccines (strain M5-90 and others) have several drawbacks and do not allow serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals. A wboA mutant was derived from Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) vaccine strain M5-90 and tested for virulence and protective efficiency. T-cell responses (CD4(+), CD8(+)), levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG), and cytokine production were observed. WboA was also assessed as a diagnostic marker for Brucellosis. B. melitensis strain M5-90ΔwboA exhibited reduced survival in murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and BALB/c mice and induced protective immunity in mice comparable to that from the parental strain M5-90. In mice, the wboA mutant elicited an anti-Brucella-specific IgG response and induced the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2). In sheep, M5-90ΔwboA immunization induced the secretion of IFN-γ, and serum samples from sheep inoculated with M5-90ΔwboA were negative by Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT). In mice, probes against WboA antigen allowed for serological differentiation between natural infection and vaccination. The M5-90ΔwboA mutant is a potential attenuated live vaccine candidate against virulent B. melitensis 16M infection. It will be further evaluated in livestock.

Authors : Li Zhi-Qiang, Shi Jing-Xue, Fu Wen-Dong, Zhang Yu, Zhang Jing, Wang Zhen, Li Tian-Sen, Chen Chuang-Fu, Guo Fei, Zhang Hui,