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(1) Functional Expression of Mucin1 in Human Duodenal Adenocarcinoma.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30763811
Publication Date : //
Mucin1 (MUC1), a member of the mucin family, is a glycoprotein which is often expressed in malignant cells. However, the expression and function of MUC1 in human duodenal adenocarcinoma (DAC) has not yet been characterized because of its low frequency. Here, we examined the functional roles of core protein (MUC1-C) in DAC.

Authors : Shiba Satomi, Miki Atsushi, Ohzawa Hideyuki, Teratani Takumi, Sakuma Yasunaru, Lefor Alan Kawarai, Kitayama Joji, Sata Naohiro,

(2) Operational immune tolerance towards transplanted allogeneic pancreatic islets in mice and a non-human primate.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30701283
Publication Date : //
Patients with autoimmune type 1 diabetes transplanted with pancreatic islets to their liver experience significant improvement in quality of life through better control of blood sugar and enhanced awareness of hypoglycaemia. However, long-term survival and efficacy of the intrahepatic islet transplant are limited owing to liver-specific complications, such as immediate blood-mediated immune reaction, hypoxia, a highly enzymatic and inflammatory environment and locally elevated levels of drugs including immunosuppressive agents, all of which are injurious to islets. This has spurred a search for new islet transplant sites and for innovative ways to achieve long-term graft survival and efficacy without life-long systemic immunosuppression and its complications.

Authors : Abdulreda Midhat H, Berman Dora M, Shishido Alexander, Martin Christopher, Hossameldin Maged, Tschiggfrie Ashley, Hernandez Luis F, Hernandez Ana, Ricordi Camillo, Parel Jean-Marie, Jankowska-Gan Ewa, Burlingham William J, Arrieta-Quintero Esdras A, Perez Victor L, Kenyon Norma S, Berggren Per-Olof,

(3) Microencapsulated adult porcine islets transplanted intraperitoneally in streptozotocin-diabetic non-human primates.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30117193
Publication Date : //
Xenogeneic donors would provide an unlimited source of islets for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The goal of this study was to assess the function of microencapsulated adult porcine islets (APIs) transplanted ip in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic non-human primates (NHPs) given targeted immunosuppression.

Authors : Safley Susan A, Kenyon Norma S, Berman Dora M, Barber Graham F, Willman Melissa, Duncanson Stephanie, Iwakoshi Neal, Holdcraft Robert, Gazda Lawrence, Thompson Peter, Badell I Raul, Sambanis Athanassios, Ricordi Camillo, Weber Collin J,

(4) Anti-apoptotic activity of human matrix metalloproteinase-2 attenuates diabetes mellitus.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29366755
Publication Date : //
Chronic progression of diabetes is associated with decreased pancreatic islet mass due to apoptosis of β-cells. Patients with diabetes have increased circulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2); however, the physiological significance has remained elusive. This study tested the hypothesis that MMP2 inhibits cell apoptosis, including islet β-cells.

Authors : Nishihama Kota, Yasuma Taro, Yano Yutaka, D' Alessandro-Gabazza Corina N, Toda Masaaki, Hinneh Josephine A, Baffour Tonto Prince, Takeshita Atsuro, Totoki Toshiaki, Mifuji-Moroka Rumi, Kobayashi Tetsu, Iwasa Motoh, Takei Yoshiyuki, Morser John, Cann Isaac, Gabazza Esteban C,

(5) Adipose stem cells from chronic pancreatitis patients improve mouse and human islet survival and function.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28854965
Publication Date : //
Chronic pancreatitis has surgical options including total pancreatectomy to control pain. To avoid surgical diabetes, the explanted pancreas can have islets harvested and transplanted. Immediately following total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TP-IAT), many islet cells die due to isolation and transplantation stresses. The percentage of patients remaining insulin free after TP-IAT is therefore low. We determined whether cotransplantation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) from chronic pancreatitis patients (CP-ASCs) would protect islets after transplantation.

Authors : Song Lili, Sun Zhen, Kim Do-Sung, Gou Wenyu, Strange Charlie, Dong Huansheng, Cui Wanxing, Gilkeson Gary, Morgan Katherine A, Adams David B, Wang Hongjun,

(6) Targeting innate immunity to downmodulate adaptive immunity and reverse type 1 diabetes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28580341
Publication Date : //
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by specific destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells accompanied by evidence of beta-cell-directed autoimmunity such as autoreactive T cells and islet autoantibodies (IAAs). Currently, T1D cannot be prevented or reversed in humans. T1D is easy to prevent in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) spontaneous mouse model but reversing new-onset T1D in mice is more difficult. Since the discovery of the T-cell receptor in the 1980s and the subsequent identification of autoreactive T cells directed toward beta-cell antigens (eg, insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase), the dream of antigen-specific immunotherapy has dominated the field with its promise of specificity and limited side effects. While such approaches have worked in the NOD mouse, however, dozens of human trials have failed. Broader immunosuppressive approaches (originally cyclosporine, subsequently anti-CD3 antibody) have shown partial successes (e.g., prolonged C peptide preservation) but no major therapeutic efficacy or disease reversal. Human prevention trials have failed, despite the ease of such approaches in the NOD mouse. In the past 50 years, the incidence of T1D has increased dramatically, and one explanation is the "hygiene hypothesis", which suggests that decreased exposure of the innate immune system to environmental immune stimulants (e.g., bacterial products such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-stimulating lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) dramatically affects the adaptive immune system and increases subsequent autoimmunity. We have tested the role of innate immunity in autoimmune T1D by treating acute-onset T1D in NOD mice with anti-TLR4/MD-2 agonistic antibodies and have shown a high rate of disease reversal. The TLR4 antibodies do not directly stimulate T cells but induce tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that mediate decreased adaptive T-cell responses. Here, we review our current knowledge and suggest future prospects for targeting innate immunity in T1D immunotherapy.

Authors : Itoh Arata, Ridgway William M,

(7) Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor protects human islets from nutrient deprivation and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced apoptosis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28484241
Publication Date : //
One of the key limitations to successful human islet transplantation is loss of islets due to stress responses pre- and post-transplantation. Nutrient deprivation and ER stress have been identified as important mechanisms leading to apoptosis. Glial Cell-line Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) has recently been found to promote islet survival after isolation. However, whether GDNF could rescue human islets from nutrient deprivation and ER stress-mediated apoptosis is unknown. Herein, by mimicking those conditions in vitro, we have shown that GDNF significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion, reduced apoptosis and proinsulin:insulin ratio in nutrient deprived human islets. Furthermore, GDNF alleviated thapsigargin-induced ER stress evidenced by reduced expressions of IRE1α and BiP and consequently apoptosis. Importantly, this was associated with an increase in phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT and GSK3B signaling pathway. Transplantation of ER stressed human islets pre-treated with GDNF under kidney capsule of diabetic mice resulted in reduced expressions of IRE1α and BiP in human islet grafts with improved grafts function shown by higher levels of human C-peptide post-transplantation. We suggest that GDNF has protective and anti-apoptotic effects on nutrient deprived and ER stress activated human islets and could play a significant role in rescuing human islets from stress responses.

Authors : Abadpour Shadab, Göpel Sven O, Schive Simen W, Korsgren Olle, Foss Aksel, Scholz Hanne,

(8) Neu5Gc and α1-3 GAL Xenoantigen Knockout Does Not Affect Glycemia Homeostasis and Insulin Secretion in Pigs.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28082457
Publication Date : //
Xenocell therapy from neonate or adult pig pancreatic islets is one of the most promising alternatives to allograft in type 1 diabetes for addressing organ shortage. In humans, however, natural and elicited antibodies specific for pig xenoantigens, α-(1,3)-galactose (GAL) and -glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), are likely to significantly contribute to xenoislet rejection. We obtained double-knockout (DKO) pigs lacking GAL and Neu5Gc. Because Neu5Gc mice exhibit glycemic dysregulations and pancreatic β-cell dysfunctions, we evaluated islet function and glucose metabolism regulation in DKO pigs. Isolation of islets from neonate piglets yielded identical islet equivalent quantities to quantities obtained from control wild-type pigs. In contrast to wild-type islets, DKO islets did not induce anti-Neu5Gc antibody when grafted in cytidine monophosphate--acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase KO mice and exhibited in vitro normal insulin secretion stimulated by glucose and theophylline. Adult DKO pancreata showed no histological abnormalities, and immunostaining of insulin and glucagon was similar to that from wild-type pancreata. Blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, the insulin-to-glucagon ratio, and HOMA-insulin resistance in fasted adult DKO pigs and blood glucose and C-peptide changes after intravenous glucose or insulin administration were similar to wild-type pigs. This first evaluation of glucose homeostasis in DKO pigs for two major xenoantigens paves the way to their use in (pre)clinical studies.

Authors : Salama Apolline, Mosser Mathilde, Lévêque Xavier, Perota Andrea, Judor Jean-Paul, Danna Corentin, Pogu Sylvie, Mouré Anne, Jégou Dominique, Gaide Nicolas, Abadie Jérôme, Gauthier Olivier, Concordet Jean-Paul, Le Bas-Bernardet Stéphanie, Riochet David, Le Berre Ludmilla, Hervouet Jérémy, Minault David, Weiss Pierre, Guicheux Jérôme, Brouard Sophie, Bosch Steffi, Lagutina Irina, Duchi Roberto, Lazzari Giovanna, Cozzi Emanuele, Blancho Gilles, Conchon Sophie, Galli Cesare, Soulillou Jean-Paul, Bach Jean-Marie,

(9) The C-terminus of IGFBP-5 suppresses tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28008951
Publication Date : //
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP-5) plays a role in cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In this study, we found that IGFBP5 was markedly downregulated in ovarian cancer tissue. We investigated the functional significance of IGFBP-5 as a tumor suppressor. To determine functional regions of IGFBP-5, truncation mutants were prepared and were studied the effect on tumor growth. Expression of C-terminal region of IGFBP-5 significantly decreased tumor growth in an ovarian cancer xenograft. A peptide derived from the C-terminus of IGFBP-5 (BP5-C) was synthesized to evaluate the minimal amino acid motif that retained anti-tumorigenic activity and its effect on angiogenesis was studied. BP5-C peptide decreased the expression of VEGF-A and MMP-9, phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, and NF-kB activity, and inhibited angiogenesis in in vitro and ex vivo systems. Furthermore, BP5-C peptide significantly decreased tumor weight and angiogenesis in both ovarian cancer orthotopic xenograft and patient-derived xenograft mice. These results suggest that the C-terminus of IGFBP-5 exerts anti-cancer activity by inhibiting angiogenesis via regulation of the Akt/ERK and NF-kB-VEGF/MMP-9 signaling pathway, and might be considered as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

Authors : Hwang Jae Ryoung, Cho Young-Jae, Lee Yoonna, Park Youngmee, Han Hee Dong, Ahn Hyung Jun, Lee Je-Ho, Lee Jeong-Won,

(10) Developmental endothelial locus-1 modulates platelet-monocyte interactions and instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction in islet transplantation.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :26676803
Publication Date : //
Platelet-monocyte interactions are strongly implicated in thrombo-inflammatory injury by actively contributing to intravascular inflammation, leukocyte recruitment to inflamed sites, and the amplification of the procoagulant response. Instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) represents thrombo-inflammatory injury elicited upon pancreatic islet transplantation (islet-Tx), thereby dramatically affecting transplant survival and function. Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is a functionally versatile endothelial cell-derived homeostatic factor with anti-inflammatory properties, but its potential role in IBMIR has not been previously addressed. Here, we establish Del-1 as a novel inhibitor of IBMIR using a whole blood-islet model and a syngeneic murine transplantation model. Indeed, Del-1 pre-treatment of blood before addition of islets diminished coagulation activation and islet damage as assessed by C-peptide release. Consistently, intraportal islet-Tx in transgenic mice with endothelial cell-specific overexpression of Del-1 resulted in a marked decrease of monocytes and platelet-monocyte aggregates in the transplanted tissues, relative to those in wild-type recipients. Mechanistically, Del-1 decreased platelet-monocyte aggregate formation, by specifically blocking the interaction between monocyte Mac-1-integrin and platelet GPIb. Our findings reveal a hitherto unknown role of Del-1 in the regulation of platelet-monocyte interplay and the subsequent heterotypic aggregate formation in the context of IBMIR. Therefore, Del-1 may represent a novel approach to prevent or mitigate the adverse reactions mediated through thrombo-inflammatory pathways in islet-Tx and perhaps other inflammatory disorders involving platelet-leukocyte aggregate formation.

Authors : Kourtzelis Ioannis, Kotlabova Klara, Lim Jong-Hyung, Mitroulis Ioannis, Ferreira Anaisa, Chen Lan-Sun, Gercken Bettina, Steffen Anja, Kemter Elisabeth, Klotzsche-von Ameln Anne, Waskow Claudia, Hosur Kavita, Chatzigeorgiou Antonios, Ludwig Barbara, Wolf Eckhard, Hajishengallis George, Chavakis Triantafyllos,