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(1) Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Triterpene β-Elemonic Acid in Frankincense In Vivo and In Vitro.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30917586
Publication Date : //
The purpose of this research was to extract and separate the compounds from frankincense, and then evaluate their anti-inflammatory effects. The isolated compound was a representative tetracyclic triterpenes of glycine structure according to ¹H-NMR and C-NMR spectra, which is β-elemonic acid (β-EA). We determined the content of six different localities of frankincense; the average content of β-EA was 41.96 mg/g. The toxic effects of β-EA administration (400, 200, 100 mg/kg) for four weeks in Kunming (KM) mice were observed. Compared with the control group, the body weight of mice, the visceral coefficients and serum indicators in the β-EA groups showed no systematic variations. The anti-inflammatory effects of β-EA were evaluated in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, xylene-induced induced ear inflammation in mice, carrageenin-induced paw edema in mice, and cotton pellet induced granuloma formation in rats. β-EA inhibited overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF R1), Eotaxin-2, Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) in the RAW264.7 cells. Intragastric administration with β-EA (300, 200, and 100 mg/kg in mice, and 210, 140, and 70 mg/kg in rats) all produced distinct anti-inflammatory effects in vivo in a dose-dependent manner. Following treatment with β-EA (300 mg/kg, i.g.), the NO level in mice ears and PGE2 in mice paws both decreased ( 0.01). In conclusion, our study indicates that β-EA could be a potential anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Authors : Zhang Yue, Yu Ying-Li, Tian Hua, Bai Ru-Yu, Bi Ya-Nan, Yuan Xiao-Mei, Sun Li-Kang, Deng Yan-Ru, Zhou Kun,

(2) and Approach to Anti-arthritic and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Crocetin by Alteration of Nuclear Factor-E2-Related Factor 2/hem Oxygenase (HO)-1 and NF-κB Expression.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30618728
Publication Date : //
Crocetin (apo carotenoid dicarboxylic acid) is a common constituent of saffron. Its importance is well documented in Chinese medicine. Some studies have reported the inhibitory effect on inflammation in rats. The aim of the current experimental investigation to scrutinize the anti-inflammatory effect of Crocetin using the lipo polysaccharide (LPS) induced mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis model and to explore possible mechanism of action. RAW 264.7 macrophages were used for estimation of the effect of crocetin on the cyclooxygenase (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO)production, anti-inflammatory and along with pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Single intraperitoneal injection of complete freund's adjuvant (CFA) was used to induce arthritis. The rats were divided into different group and received the oral administration of crocetin in a dose-dependent manner with indomethacin till 28 days. The paw edema and body weight was estimated at regular interval of time. The biochemical parameters, hematological and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1), IL-6, and IL-1β, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); heme oxygenase-1/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (HO-1/Nrf-2) expression were estimated at end of the experimental study. Crocetin inhibited the COX-2 catalyzed prostaglandin (PGE) and inducible nitric oxide synthase catalyzed NO production on RAW 264.7. The paw edema and body weight was significantly ( < 0.001) modulated by the Crocetin in a dose-dependent manner. Crocetin treatment increased the level of red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and decreased level of white blood cells (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) parameters, with reduction of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β.The protective effect of crocetin was substantiated with a reduction in expression of IL-6, IL-1β, VEGF, and TNF-R1, respectively. Crocetin also increased the HO-1/Nrf-2 and decreased the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) mRNA, protein expression. On the basis of the result, we can conclude that the reduction of HO-1/Nrf-2 expression, as well as inflammatory mediators, may be involved in the protective effect of Crocetin in the CFA model.

Authors : Li Yi, Kakkar Rajat, Wang Jian,

(3) Anti-atherosclerosis of oligomeric proanthocyanidins from Rhodiola rosea on rat model via hypolipemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities together with regulation of endothelial function.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30466614
Publication Date : //
Rhodiola rosea has been used as a traditional medicine for a long history. Previous studies on oligomeric proanthocyanidins from Rhodiola rosea (OPCRR) have showed that it exhibited significant free radical-scavenging activities, antioxidant activities in aging mice and lipid lowering effects.

Authors : Zhou Qian, Han Xue, Li Rongbin, Zhao Wen, Bai Bingyao, Yan Chenjing, Dong Xiaohan,

(4) Green Alga spp. Hydrolysates and Their Peptide Fractions Regulate Cytokine Production in Splenic Macrophages and Lymphocytes Involving the TLR4-NFκB/MAPK Pathways.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29997311
Publication Date : //
Hydrolysates of food protein sources have immunomodulatory effects, which are of interest for use as functional foods. In this study, we have characterized the immune regulatory effect on rat splenocytes, macrophages and T lymphocytes of spp. hydrolysates and their peptide fractions with or without in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and/or ultrafiltration. IL-10 was induced in almost all conditions and cell types obtained from wild type animals. The induction was in general increased by ultrafiltration and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. TNF was also induced in basal conditions. In turn, TNF and IFN-γ production was attenuated by the hydrolysate products in lipopolysaccharide or concanavalin A immune stimulated cells. Inhibitors for the activation of NFκB, MAPK p38 and JNK inhibited IL-10 induction in rat splenocytes. The response was dramatically attenuated in TLR4 cells, and only modestly in TLR2 cells. Food peptides from spp. genus exert anti-inflammatory effects in immune cells mediated by TLR4 and NFκB. Similarity with the immunomodulatory profile of protein hydrolysates from other sources suggests a common mechanism.

Authors : Cian Raúl E, Hernández-Chirlaque Cristina, Gámez-Belmonte Reyes, Drago Silvina R, Sánchez de Medina Fermín, Martínez-Augustin Olga,

(5) Urate inhibits microglia activation to protect neurons in an LPS-induced model of Parkinson's disease.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29720230
Publication Date : //
Multiple risk factors contribute to the progression of Parkinson's disease, including oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Epidemiological studies have revealed a link between higher urate level and a lower risk of developing PD. However, the mechanistic basis for this association remains unclear. Urate protects dopaminergic neurons from cell death induced by oxidative stress. Here, we investigated a novel role of urate in microglia activation in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD model.

Authors : Bao Li-Hui, Zhang Ya-Nan, Zhang Jian-Nan, Gu Li, Yang Hui-Min, Huang Yi-Ying, Xia Ning, Zhang Hong,

(6) [Therapeutic effect of anti-CXCL1 neutralizing antibody on 
acute ulcerative colitis in mice].[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29317577
Publication Date : //
To evaluate the therapeutic effect of CXCL1 monoclonal antibody on dextra sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice, and to elucidate its effect on the expressions of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-10 as well as neutrophil infiltration.
 Methods: Female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into a normal group (DSS-), a disease group (DSS+saline), an anti-CXCL1 antibody group (DSS+anti-CXCL1 Ab) and a treatment control group (DSS+IgG Ab). The DSS+saline, DSS+anti-CXCL1 Ab and DSS+anti-CXCL1 Ab groups were given 3.5% DSS solution as drinking water to induce acute intestinal inflammation, while the normal control was given distilled water freely. The DSS+anti-CXCL1 Ab mice were intraperitoneal injected with anti-CXCL1 Ab (4 mg/kg) on the 3rd and 6th day. Same amount of rat IgG Ab was given in the DSS+IgG Ab group. The normal group and the disease group were injected with 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The value of disease activity index (DAI) and the injury of colorectal tissue were measured. The levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 in colonic tissues of mice were detected by RT-PCR. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a specific marker of neutrophils was measured by immunohistochemistry.
 Results: Compared with the normal control group, DAI score and colorectal injury score in the disease group were significantly increased, but the DAI and colorectal in the mice with acute ulcerative colitis tissue damage score were significantly reduced after anti-CXCL1 Ab intervention. Compared with the normal control group, mRNA levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17 in the colorectal tissues were significantly elevated (P<0.05) in the disease group while the IL-10 was decreased; these effects were attenuated by anti-CXCL1 Ab intervention (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that the infiltration of neutrophils (MPO+) in the colon tissue was significantly increased in the disease group, while the anti-CXCL1 Ab treatment could significantly reduce the neutrophil infiltration in colon tissue (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Anti-CXCL1 Ab relieves the progression of DSS-induced acute ulcerative colitis by suppressing proinflammatory expression and neutrophil infiltration.

Authors : Luo Linglong, Zhang Xuemei, Wang Jing, Li Xiayu, Ma Jian, Shen Shourong,

(7) Characterization of a microbial polysaccharide-based bioflocculant and its anti-inflammatory and pro-coagulant activity.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29169118
Publication Date : //
We describe a novel bioflocculant, MBF-15, which is an exopolysaccharide extracted from the alkaliphilic bacterium Paenibacillus jamilae. The biophysical characteristics of MBF-15 were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. MBF-15 was also evaluated for its biocompatibility by examining its inflammatory, coagulant, and hemostatic properties in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with MBF-15 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, production of nitric oxide, and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. In addition, MBF-15 increased both mRNA and protein levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor-β and IL-10. The hemocompatibility of MBF-15 was investigated by measuring the hemolysis ratio and clotting times. MBF-15 had high pro-thrombogenic activity but was not hemolytic. In a rat model, MBF-15 showed superior hemostatic properties compared with chitosan. Thus, MBF-15 offers a promising combination of anti-inflammatory and pro-coagulant properties that may be useful for hemostasis in a variety of clinical settings.

Authors : Zhong Chunying, Cao Gang, Rong Kuan, Xia Zhengwu, Peng Ting, Chen Honggao, Zhou Jiangang,

(8) Anti-Gouty Arthritis and Antihyperuricemia Effects of Sunflower Head Extract in Gouty and Hyperuricemia Animal Models.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28929115
Publication Date : //
This study was performed to investigate the therapeutic effects and possible mechanisms of sunflower head extract (SHE) on gout. First, the components of sunflower head powder and SHE were analyzed systematically. SHE, especially SHEB (extracted with 20% ethanol and 80% double-distilled water), strongly suppressed the swelling of the ankles in rats with acute gout induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystals and reduced the levels of uric acid and xanthine oxidase (XO) in mice with hyperuricemia induced by oteracil potassium and yeast extract powder. Hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that SHEB reduced inflammation cells and increased the joint space in the ankle compared with the control rats with MSU-induced gout. In the rats with acute gout, among 13 detected inflammatory cytokines, SHEB significantly enhanced the serum levels of interleukin-10 and the monocyte chemoattractant protein 1. In the mice with hyperuricemia, SHEB reduced the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, and nitrogen monoxide in liver tissues. The potential therapeutic effects of SHE on gout are probably due to the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the suppression of XO activity via the modulation of oxidative stress status.

Authors : Li Lanzhou, Teng Meiyu, Liu Yange, Qu Yidi, Zhang Yuanzhu, Lin Feng, Wang Di,

(9) Nociceptor interleukin 10 receptor 1 is critical for muscle analgesia induced by repeated bouts of eccentric exercise in the rat.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28628078
Publication Date : //
Delayed-onset muscle soreness is typically observed after strenuous or unaccustomed eccentric exercise. Soon after recovery, blunted muscle soreness is observed on repeated eccentric exercise, a phenomenon known as repeated bout effect (RBE). Although regular physical activity decreases muscle hyperalgesia, likely because of increased production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the skeletal muscle, whether IL-10 also contributes to the antinociceptive effect of RBE is unknown. Furthermore, whether IL-10 attenuates muscle hyperalgesia by acting on muscle nociceptors remains to be established. Here, we explored the hypothesis that blunted muscle nociception observed in RBE depends on a local effect of IL-10, acting on IL-10 receptor 1 (IL-10R1) expressed by muscle nociceptors. Results show that after a second bout of eccentric exercise, rats exhibited decreased muscle hyperalgesia, indicative of RBE, and increased expression of IL-10 in the exercised gastrocnemius muscle. Although knockdown of IL-10R1 protein in nociceptors innervating the gastrocnemius muscle by intrathecal antisense oligodeoxynucleotide did not change nociceptive threshold in naive rats, it unveiled latent muscle hyperalgesia in rats submitted to eccentric exercise 12 days ago. Furthermore, antisense also prevented the reduction of muscle hyperalgesia observed after a second bout of eccentric exercise. These data indicate that recovery of nociceptive threshold after eccentric exercise and RBE-induced analgesia depend on a local effect of IL-10, acting on its canonical receptor in muscle nociceptors.

Authors : Alvarez Pedro, Bogen Oliver, Green Paul G, Levine Jon D,

(10) Airways antiallergic effect and pharmacokinetics of alkaloids from Alstonia scholaris.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28314480
Publication Date : //
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. (Apocynaceae), an important herbal medicine, has been widely used to treat respiratory tract diseases, such as cough, asthma, phlegm, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Authors : Zhao Yun-Li, Cao Jing, Shang Jian-Hua, Liu Ya-Ping, Khan Afsar, Wang Heng-Shan, Qian Yi, Liu Lu, Ye Min, Luo Xiao-Dong,